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HOUSE BILL NO. 176
INTRODUCED BY E. BERGSAGEL
BY REQUEST OF THE CORRECTIONAL STANDARDS AND OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE
AN ACT REVISING THE DISPOSITION OF YOUTH COURT RECORDS FOR THE PURPOSES OF RESEARCH AND PROGRAM EVALUATION; DEFINING "YOUTH COURT RECORDS", "LAW ENFORCEMENT RECORDS", AND "DEPARTMENT RECORDS"; AMENDING SECTIONS 41-5-103, 41-5-215, AND 41-5-216, MCA; AND REPEALING SECTION 41-5-217, MCA.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MONTANA:
Section 1. Section 41-5-103, MCA, is amended to read:
"41-5-103. Definitions. As used in the Montana Youth Court Act, unless the context requires otherwise, the following definitions apply:
(1) "Adult" means an individual who is 18 years of age or older.
(2) "Agency" means any entity of state or local government authorized by law to be responsible for the care or rehabilitation of youth.
(3) "Assessment officer" means a person who is authorized by the court to provide initial intake and evaluation for a youth who appears to be in need of intervention or an alleged delinquent youth.
(4) "Commit" means to transfer to legal custody.
(5) "Correctional facility" means a public or private residential facility used for the placement of delinquent youth or individuals convicted of criminal offenses.
(6) "Court", when used without further qualification, means the youth court of the district court.
(7) "Custodian" means a person, other than a parent or guardian, to whom legal custody of the youth has been given but does not include a person who has only physical custody.
(8) "Delinquent youth" means a youth who is adjudicated under formal proceedings under the Montana Youth Court Act as a youth:
(a) who has committed an offense that, if committed by an adult, would constitute a criminal offense; or
(b) who has been placed on probation as a delinquent youth or a youth in need of intervention and who has violated any condition of probation.
(9) "Department" means the department of corrections provided for in 2-15-2301.
(10) "Department records" means information or data, either in written or electronic form, maintained by the department pertaining to youth who are committed to the department under 41-5-1512(3) or 41-5-1513(1)(b) or (1)(c) or who are under parole supervision. Department records do not include information provided by the department to the department of public health and human services' management information system.
(10)(11) "Detention" means the holding or temporary placement of a youth in the youth's home under home arrest or in a
facility other than the youth's own home for:
(a) the purpose of ensuring the continued custody of the youth at any time after the youth is taken into custody and before final disposition of the youth's case; or
(b) contempt of court or violation of a valid court order.
(11)(12) "Detention facility" means a physically restricting facility designed to prevent a youth from departing at will.
The term includes a youth detention facility, short-term detention center, and regional detention facility. (12)(13) "Family" means the parents, guardians, legal custodians, and siblings or other youth with whom a youth
ordinarily lives. (13)(14) "Final disposition" means the implementation of a court order for the disposition or placement of a youth as
provided in 41-5-1422, 41-5-1503, 41-5-1504, 41-5-1512, 41-5-1513, and 41-5-1522 through 41-5-1525. (14)(15) "Foster home" means a private residence licensed by the department of public health and human services for
placement of a youth. (15)(16) "Guardian" means an adult:
(a) who is responsible for a youth and has the reciprocal rights, duties, and responsibilities with the youth; and
(b) whose status is created and defined by law.
(16)(17) "Habitual truancy" means recorded absences of 10 days or more of unexcused absences in a semester or
absences without prior written approval of a parent or a guardian. (17)(18) "Holdover" means a room, office, building, or other place approved by the board of crime control for the
temporary detention and supervision of youth in a physically unrestricting setting for a period not to exceed 24 hours while
the youth is awaiting a probable cause hearing, release, or transfer to an appropriate detention or shelter care facility. The
term does not include a jail. (18)(19) "Jail" means a facility used for the confinement of adults accused or convicted of criminal offenses. The term
includes a lockup or other facility used primarily for the temporary confinement of adults after arrest but does not include a
collocated juvenile detention facility that complies with 28 CFR, part 31. (19)(20) "Judge", when used without further qualification, means the judge of the youth court.
(21) "Law enforcement records" means information or data, either in written or electronic form, maintained by a law enforcement agency, as defined in 7-32-201, pertaining to a youth covered by this chapter.
(20)(22) (a) "Legal custody" means the legal status created by order of a court of competent jurisdiction that gives a
person the right and duty to:
(i) have physical custody of the youth;
(ii) determine with whom the youth shall live and for what period;
(iii) protect, train, and discipline the youth; and
(iv) provide the youth with food, shelter, education, and ordinary medical care.
(b) An individual granted legal custody of a youth shall personally exercise the individual's rights and duties as guardian unless otherwise authorized by the court entering the order.
(21)(23) "Necessary parties" includes the youth and the youth's parents, guardian, custodian, or spouse. (22)(24) "Parent" means the natural or adoptive parent but does not include a person whose parental rights have been
judicially terminated, nor does it include the putative father of an illegitimate youth unless the putative father's paternity is
established by an adjudication or by other clear and convincing proof. (23)(25) "Probable cause hearing" means the hearing provided for in 41-5-332. (24)(26) "Regional detention facility" means a youth detention facility established and maintained by two or more
counties, as authorized in 41-5-1804. (25)(27) "Restitution" means payments in cash to the victim or with services to the victim or the general community
when these payments are made pursuant to a consent adjustment, consent decree, or other youth court order. (26)(28) "Running away from home" means that a youth has been reported to have run away from home without the
consent of a parent or guardian or a custodian having legal custody of the youth. (27)(29) "Secure detention facility" means a public or private facility that:
(a) is used for the temporary placement of youth or individuals accused or convicted of criminal offenses or as a sanction for contempt of court, violation of a parole agreement, or violation of a valid court order; and
(b) is designed to physically restrict the movements and activities of youth or other individuals held in lawful custody of the facility.
(28)(30) "Serious juvenile offender" means a youth who has committed an offense that would be considered a felony
offense if committed by an adult and that is an offense against a person, an offense against property, or an offense involving
dangerous drugs. (29)(31) "Shelter care" means the temporary substitute care of youth in physically unrestricting facilities. (30)(32) "Shelter care facility" means a facility used for the shelter care of youth. The term is limited to the facilities
enumerated in 41-5-344. (31)(33) "Short-term detention center" means a detention facility licensed by the department for the temporary placement
or care of youth, for a period not to exceed 10 days excluding weekends and legal holidays, pending a probable cause
hearing, release, or transfer of the youth to an appropriate detention facility, youth assessment center, or shelter care facility. (32)(34) "State youth correctional facility" means a residential facility used for the placement and rehabilitation of
delinquent youth, such as the Pine Hills youth correctional facility in Miles City. (33)(35) "Substitute care" means full-time care of youth in a residential setting for the purpose of providing food, shelter,
security and safety, guidance, direction, and, if necessary, treatment to youth who are removed from or are without the care
and supervision of their parents or guardians. (34)(36) "Victim" means:
(a) a person who suffers property, physical, or emotional injury as a result of an offense committed by a youth that would be a felony offense if committed by an adult;
(b) an adult relative of the victim as defined in subsection
(34)(a) (36)(a) if the victim is a minor; and
(c) an adult relative of a homicide victim.
(35)(37) "Youth" means an individual who is less than 18 years of age without regard to sex or emancipation. (36)(38) "Youth assessment" means a multidisciplinary assessment of a youth as provided in 41-5-1201. (37)(39) "Youth assessment center" means a staff-secured location that is licensed by the department of public health and
human services to hold a youth for up to 10 days for the purpose of providing an immediate and comprehensive
community-based youth assessment to assist the youth and the youth's family in addressing the youth's behavior. (38)(40) "Youth care facility" has the meaning provided in 41-3-1102. (39)(41) "Youth court" means the court established pursuant to this chapter to hear all proceedings in which a youth is
alleged to be a delinquent youth, a youth in need of intervention, or a youth in need of care and includes the youth court
judge, probation officers, and assessment officers.
(42) "Youth court records" means information or data, either in written or electronic form, maintained by the youth court pertaining to a youth under jurisdiction of the youth court and includes reports of preliminary inquiries, petitions, motions, other filed pleadings, court findings, verdicts, orders and decrees, youth assessment materials, predispositional studies, and supervision records of probationers. Youth court records do not include information provided by the youth court to the department of public health and human services' management information system.
(40)(43) "Youth detention facility" means a secure detention facility licensed by the department for the temporary
substitute care of youth that:
(a) is operated, administered, and staffed separately and independently of a jail; and
(b) is used exclusively for the lawful detention of alleged or adjudicated delinquent youth or as a sanction for contempt of court, violation of a parole agreement, or violation of a valid court order.
(41)(44) "Youth in need of care" has the meaning provided for in 41-3-102. (42)(45) "Youth in need of intervention" means a youth who is adjudicated as a youth and who commits an offense
prohibited by law that if committed by an adult would not constitute a criminal offense, including but not limited to a youth
(a) violates any Montana municipal or state law regarding alcoholic beverages;
(b) continues to exhibit behavior, including running away from home or habitual truancy, beyond the control of the youth's parents, foster parents, physical custodian, or guardian despite the attempt of the youth's parents, foster parents, physical custodian, or guardian to exert all reasonable efforts to mediate, resolve, or control the youth's behavior; or
(c) has committed any of the acts of a delinquent youth but whom the youth court, in its discretion, chooses to regard as a youth in need of intervention."
Section 2. Section 41-5-215, MCA, is amended to read:
"41-5-215. Youth court
and department records -- notification of school. (1) Except as provided in subsection (2),
all youth court records on file with the clerk of court, including reports Reports of preliminary inquiries, petitions, motions,
other filed pleadings, court findings, verdicts, and orders , and decrees , on file with the clerk of court are public records and
are open to public inspection until the records are sealed under 41-5-216.
(2) Social, medical, and psychological records, youth assessment materials, predispositional studies, and supervision records of probationers are open only to the following:
(a) the youth court and its professional staff;
(b) representatives of any agency providing supervision and having legal custody of a youth;
(c) any other person, by order of the court, having a legitimate interest in the case or in the work of the court;
(d) any court and its probation and other professional staff or the attorney for a convicted party who had been a party to proceedings in the youth court when considering the sentence to be imposed upon the party;
(e) the county attorney;
(f) the youth who is the subject of the report or record, after emancipation or reaching the age of majority;
(g) a member of a county interdisciplinary child information team formed under 52-2-211 who is not listed in this subsection (2);
(h) members of a local interagency staffing group provided for in 52-2-203;
(i) persons allowed access to the records referred to under 45-5-624(7); and
(j) persons allowed access under 42-3-203.
(3) In all cases, a victim is entitled to all information concerning the identity and disposition of the youth, as provided in 41-5-1416.
(4) The identity of a youth who for the second or subsequent time admits violating or is adjudicated as having violated a statute must be disclosed by youth court officials to the administrative officials of the school in which the youth is a student. The administrative officials may enforce any school disciplinary procedures that existed at the time of the admission or adjudication. The information may not be further disclosed and may not be made part of the student's permanent records.
(5) Any part of records information secured from records listed in subsection (2), when presented to and used by the court in a proceeding under this chapter, must also be made available to the counsel for the parties to the proceedings.
(6) After youth court and department records, reports of preliminary inquiries, predispositional studies, and supervision
records of probationers are sealed, they are not open to inspection except, upon order of the youth court, for good cause to: (a) those persons and agencies listed in subsection (2); and (b) adult probation professional staff preparing a presentence report on a youth who has reached the age of majority."
Section 3. Section 41-5-216, MCA, is amended to read:
"41-5-216. Disposition of youth court, law enforcement, and department records. (1)
Except as provided in
subsections (2) and (5), youth Youth court records and, law enforcement records pertaining, and department records that are
not exempt from sealing under subsections (4) and (6) and that pertain to a youth covered by this chapter must be physically
sealed 3 years after supervision for an offense ends. The records may be unsealed if a new offense is committed. (2) In those cases in which jurisdiction of the court or any agency is extended beyond the youth's 18th birthday, the
records and files not exempt from sealing under subsection (5) must be physically sealed upon termination of the extended
jurisdiction. (3)(2) Upon the physical sealing of Except as provided in subsection (6), when the records pertaining to a youth
pursuant to this section are sealed, an agency, or other than the department, that has in its possession copies of the sealed
records shall also seal or destroy the copies of the records. Anyone violating the provisions of this subsection is subject to
contempt of court. (4)(3) This Except as provided in subsection (6), this section does not prohibit the destruction of records with the
consent of the youth court judge or county attorney after 10 years from the date of sealing. (5)(4) The requirements for sealed records in this section do not apply to fingerprints, DNA records, photographs, youth
traffic records, records in any case in which the youth did not fulfill all requirements of the court's judgment or disposition,
or records referred to in 42-3-203 or 45-5-624(7).
(5) After youth court records, law enforcement records, and department records are sealed, they are not open to inspection except, upon order of the youth court, for good cause, including when a youth commits a new offense, to:
(a) those persons and agencies listed in 41-5-215(2); and
(b) adult probation professional staff preparing a presentence report on a youth who has reached the age of majority.
(6) (a) When youth court records, law enforcement records, and department records are sealed under subsection (1), the electronic records of the management information system maintained by the department of public health and human services relating to the youth whose records are being sealed must be preserved for the express purpose of research and program evaluation as provided in subsection (6)(b).
(b) The department of public health and human services shall disassociate the offense and disposition information from the name of the youth in the management information system. The offense and disposition information must be maintained separately and may be used only:
(i) for research and program evaluation authorized by the department of public health and human services and subject to any applicable laws; and
(ii) as provided in Title 5, chapter 13."
Section 4. Repealer. Section 41-5-217, MCA, is repealed.
- END -
Latest Version of HB 176 (HB0176.ENR)
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