Montana Code Annotated 2015

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     37-51-102. Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, in this chapter, the following definitions apply:
     (1) "Account" means the real estate recovery account established in 37-51-501.
     (2) (a) "Adverse material fact" means a fact that should be recognized by a broker or salesperson as being of enough significance as to affect a person's decision to enter into a contract to buy or sell real property and may be a fact that:
     (i) materially affects the value, affects structural integrity, or presents a documented health risk to occupants of the property; or
     (ii) materially affects the buyer's ability or intent to perform the buyer's obligations under a proposed or existing contract.
     (b) The term does not include the fact that an occupant of the property has or has had a communicable disease or that the property was the site of a suicide or felony.
     (3) "Asset management" means management, oversight, or direct actions taken to maintain or transfer any real property before a foreclosure sale or in preparation for liquidation of real property owned by the client pursuant to a foreclosure sale. This includes any action taken to preserve, restore, or improve the value and to lessen the risk of damage to the property in preparation for liquidation of real property pursuant to a foreclosure sale.
     (4) "Board" means the board of realty regulation provided for in 2-15-1757.
     (5) "Broker" includes an individual who:
     (a) for another or for valuable consideration or who with the intent or expectation of receiving valuable consideration negotiates or attempts to negotiate the listing, sale, purchase, rental, exchange, or lease of real estate or of the improvements on real estate or collects rents or attempts to collect rents;
     (b) is employed by or on behalf of the owner or lessor of real estate to conduct the sale, leasing, subleasing, or other disposition of real estate for consideration;
     (c) engages in the business of charging an advance fee or contracting for collection of a fee in connection with a contract by which the individual undertakes primarily to promote the sale, lease, or other disposition of real estate in this state through its listing in a publication issued primarily for this purpose or for referral of information concerning real estate to brokers;
     (d) makes the advertising, sale, lease, or other real estate information available by public display to potential buyers;
     (e) aids or attempts or offers to aid, for a fee, any person in locating or obtaining any real estate for purchase or lease;
     (f) receives a fee, commission, or other compensation for referring to a licensed broker or salesperson the name of a prospective buyer or seller of real property;
     (g) performs asset management services for real property in conjunction with the marketing or transfer of the property; or
     (h) advertises or represents to the public that the individual is engaged in any of the activities referred to in this subsection (5).
     (6) "Buyer" means a person who is interested in acquiring an ownership interest in real property or who has entered into an agreement to acquire an interest in real property. The term includes tenants or potential tenants with respect to leases or rental agreements of real property.
     (7) "Buyer agent" means a broker or salesperson who, pursuant to a written buyer broker agreement, is acting as the agent of the buyer in a real estate transaction and includes a buyer subagent and an in-house buyer agent designate.
     (8) "Buyer broker agreement" means a written agreement in which a prospective buyer employs a broker to locate real estate of the type and with terms and conditions as designated in the written agreement.
     (9) "Buyer subagent" means a broker or salesperson who, pursuant to an offer of a subagency, acts as the agent of a buyer.
     (10) "Department" means the department of labor and industry provided for in Title 2, chapter 15, part 17.
     (11) "Dual agent" means a broker or salesperson who, pursuant to a written listing agreement or buyer broker agreement or as a buyer or seller subagent, acts as the agent of both the buyer and seller with written authorization, as provided in 37-51-314. An in-house buyer or seller agent designate may not be considered a dual agent.
     (12) "Franchise agreement" means a contract or agreement by which:
     (a) a franchisee is granted the right to engage in business under a marketing plan prescribed in substantial part by the franchisor;
     (b) the operation of the franchisee's business is substantially associated with the franchisor's trademark, trade name, logotype, or other commercial symbol or advertising designating the franchisor; and
     (c) the franchisee is required to pay, directly or indirectly, a fee for the right to operate under the agreement.
     (13) "In-house buyer agent designate" means a broker or salesperson employed by or associated as an independent contractor with a broker and designated by the broker as the exclusive agent for a buyer for a designated transaction and who may not be considered to be acting for other than the buyer with respect to the designated transaction.
     (14) "In-house seller agent designate" means a broker or salesperson employed by or associated as an independent contractor with a broker and designated by the broker as the exclusive agent for a seller for a designated transaction and who may not be considered to be acting for other than the seller with respect to the designated transaction.
     (15) "Listing agreement" means a written agreement between a seller and broker for the sale of real estate, with the terms and conditions set out in the agreement.
     (16) "Negotiations" includes:
     (a) efforts to act as an intermediary between parties to a real estate transaction;
     (b) facilitating and participating in contract discussions;
     (c) completing forms for offers, counteroffers, addendums, and other writings; and
     (d) presenting offers and counteroffers.
     (17) "Person" includes individuals, partnerships, associations, and corporations, foreign and domestic, except that when referring to a person licensed under this chapter, it means an individual.
     (18) "Property manager" means an individual who for a salary, commission, or compensation of any kind or with the intent or expectation of receiving valuable consideration engages in the business of leasing, renting, subleasing, or other transfer of possession of real estate located in this state and belonging to others without transfer of the title to the property. The term includes but is not limited to an individual who:
     (a) is employed by or on behalf of the owner, lessor, or potential lessee of real estate to promote or conduct the leasing, subleasing, or other disposition or acquisition of real estate without transfer of the title to the property;
     (b) negotiates or attempts to negotiate the lease of any real estate located in this state or of the improvements on any real estate located in this state;
     (c) engages in the business of promoting the lease, rental, exchange, or other disposition of real estate located in this state without transfer of the title to the property through the listing of the real estate in a publication issued primarily for this purpose;
     (d) assists in creating or completing real estate lease contracts;
     (e) procures tenants for owners of real estate located in this state;
     (f) aids or offers to aid, for a fee, any person in locating or obtaining any real estate for lease in this state;
     (g) makes the advertising of real property for lease available by public display to potential tenants;
     (h) shows rental or lease properties to potential tenants;
     (i) in conjunction with property management responsibilities, acts as a liaison between the owners of real estate and a tenant or potential tenant;
     (j) in conjunction with property management responsibilities, generally oversees the inspection, maintenance, and upkeep of leased real estate belonging to others;
     (k) in conjunction with property management responsibilities, collects rents or attempts to collect rents for any real estate located in this state;
     (l) pays a fee, commission, or other compensation to a licensed broker, salesperson, or property manager for referral of the name of a prospective lessor or lessee of real property;
     (m) receives a fee, commission, or other compensation from a licensed broker, salesperson, or property manager for referring the name of a prospective buyer, seller, lessor, or lessee of real estate; or
     (n) advertises or represents to the public that the individual is engaged in any of the activities referred to in this subsection (18).
     (19) "Real estate" includes leaseholds as well as any other interest or estate in land, whether corporeal, incorporeal, freehold, or nonfreehold and whether the real estate is situated in this state or elsewhere.
     (20) "Real estate transaction" means the sale, exchange, or lease or grant of an option for the sale, exchange, or lease of an interest in real estate and includes all communication, interposition, advisement, negotiation, and contract development and closing.
     (21) "Salesperson" includes an individual who for a salary, commission, or compensation of any kind is associated, either directly, indirectly, regularly, or occasionally, with a real estate broker to sell, purchase, or negotiate for the sale, purchase, exchange, or renting of real estate.
     (22) "Seller" means a person who has entered into a listing agreement to sell real estate and includes landlords who have an interest in or are a party to a lease or rental agreement.
     (23) "Seller agent" means a broker or salesperson who, pursuant to a written listing agreement, acts as the agent of a seller and includes a seller subagent and an in-house seller agent designate.
     (24) "Seller subagent" means a broker or salesperson who, pursuant to an offer of a subagency, acts as the agent of a seller.
     (25) (a) "Statutory broker" means a broker or salesperson who assists one or more parties to a real estate transaction without acting as an agent or representative of any party to the real estate transaction.
     (b) A broker or salesperson is presumed to be acting as a statutory broker unless the broker or salesperson has entered into a listing agreement with a seller or a buyer broker agreement with a buyer or has disclosed, as required in this chapter, a relationship other than that of a statutory broker.
     (26) "Supervising broker" means a licensed broker with whom a licensed salesperson is associated, directly, indirectly, regularly, or occasionally, to sell, purchase, or negotiate for the sale, purchase, exchange, or renting of real estate.
     (27) "Supervising broker endorsement" means an endorsement to a broker's license that is required of any licensed broker who supervises licensed salespersons performing real estate activity.

     History: En. Sec. 2, Ch. 250, L. 1963; amd. Sec. 2, Ch. 261, L. 1969; amd. Sec. 178, Ch. 350, L. 1974; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 133, L. 1975; R.C.M. 1947, 66-1925; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 188, L. 1979; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 306, L. 1979; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 497, L. 1979; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 274, L. 1981; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 688, L. 1985; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 314, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 125, L. 1991; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 142, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 565, L. 1995; amd. Sec. 144, Ch. 483, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 34, Ch. 492, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 25, Ch. 502, L. 2007; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 211, L. 2015.

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