Montana Code Annotated 2015

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     53-20-146. Right not to be subjected to certain treatment procedures. (1) Residents of a residential facility have a right not to be subjected to unusual or hazardous treatment procedures without the express and informed consent of the resident, if the resident is able to give consent, and of the resident's parents or guardian or the responsible person appointed by the court after opportunities for consultation with independent specialists and legal counsel. Proposed procedures must first have been reviewed and approved by the mental disabilities board of visitors before consent is sought.
     (2) Physical restraint may be employed only when absolutely necessary to protect the resident from injury or to prevent injury to others. Mechanical supports used to achieve proper body position and balance that are ordered by a physician are not considered a physical restraint. Restraint may not be employed as punishment, for the convenience of staff, or as a substitute for a habilitation program. Restraint may be applied only if alternative techniques have failed and only if the restraint imposes the least possible restriction consistent with its purpose. Use of restraints may be authorized by a physician, a developmental disabilities professional, or a qualified intellectual disability professional. Orders for restraints must be in writing and may not be in force for longer than 12 hours. Whenever physical restraint is ordered, suitable provision must be made for the comfort and physical needs of the resident restrained.
     (3) Seclusion, defined as the placement of a resident alone in a locked room for nontherapeutic purposes, may not be employed. Legitimate "time out" procedures may be used under close and direct professional supervision as a technique in behavior-shaping programs.
     (4) Behavior modification programs involving the use of noxious or aversive stimuli must be reviewed and approved by the mental disabilities board of visitors and may be conducted only with the express and informed consent of the affected resident, if the resident is able to give consent, and of the resident's parents or guardian or the responsible person appointed by the court after opportunities for consultation with independent specialists and with legal counsel. These behavior modification programs may be conducted only under the supervision of and in the presence of a qualified intellectual disability professional who has had proper training.
     (5) A resident may not be subjected to a behavior modification program that attempts to extinguish socially appropriate behavior or to develop new behavior patterns when the behavior modifications serve only institutional convenience.
     (6) Electric shock devices are considered a research technique for the purpose of this part. Electric shock devices may be used only in extraordinary circumstances to prevent self-mutilation leading to repeated and possibly permanent physical damage to the resident and only after alternative techniques have failed. The use of electric shock devices is subject to the conditions prescribed by this part for experimental research generally and may be used only under the direct and specific order of a physician and an individual designated by the department of public health and human services to order the treatment for an individual placed in a residential facility.

     History: En. 38-1227 by Sec. 27, Ch. 468, L. 1975; R.C.M. 1947, 38-1227; amd. Sec. 8, Ch. 485, L. 1979; amd. Sec. 19, Ch. 381, L. 1991; amd. Sec. 18, Ch. 255, L. 1995; amd. Sec. 15, Ch. 68, L. 2013; amd. Sec. 11, Ch. 444, L. 2015.

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