Montana Code Annotated 2015

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     85-20-401. United States National Park Service-Montana compact ratified. The compact entered into by the state of Montana and the United States National Park Service and filed with the secretary of state of the state of Montana under the provisions of 85-2-702 on May 12, 1993, is ratified. The compact is as follows:

WATER RIGHTS COMPACT STATE OF MONTANA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE


      This Compact is entered into by the State of Montana and the United States of America to settle for all time any and all claims to water for certain lands administered by the National Park Service within the State of Montana at the time of the effective date of this Compact.
      A Compact between the State of Montana and the United States of America regarding water rights for National Park Service lands was executed January 31, 1994. The parties were unable to finalize agreement on quantification of the water rights for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument prior to the completion of the Compact executed January 31, 1994. This Compact is the final agreement regarding the water rights attributable to these two NPS Units.

RECITALS


      WHEREAS, in 1979 the United States filed in the United States District Court for the District of Montana several actions to adjudicate, inter alia, its rights to water with respect to Glacier National Park, see United States v. Aageson, No. CV-79-21-GF; United States v. Abell, No. CV-79-33-M; and United States v. AMS Ranch, Inc., No. CV-79-22-GF.
      WHEREAS, the State of Montana, in 1979 pursuant to Title 85, Chapter 2 of the Montana Code Annotated, commenced a general adjudication of the rights to the use of water within the State of Montana including all federal reserved and appropriative water rights;
      WHEREAS, 85-2-703, MCA, provides that the state may negotiate settlement of claims by the federal government to non-Indian reserved waters within the State of Montana;
      WHEREAS, the United States wishes to quantify and have decreed the amount of water necessary to fulfill the purposes of the existing National Park Service units in the State of Montana, including those reserved water rights necessary to preserve Glacier National Park and Yellowstone National Park unimpaired for future generations;
      WHEREAS, the United States, in quantifying its reserved water rights recognizes the need to accommodate the interests of the state and its citizens by providing for the development and use of water in the vicinity of the Park units to the extent that it is possible to do so without materially affecting the rights and interests of the United States;
      WHEREAS, the United States Attorney General, or a duly designated official of the United States Department of Justice, has authority to execute this Compact on behalf of the United States pursuant to the authority to settle litigation contained in 28 U.S.C. §§ 516-17 (1968);
      WHEREAS The Secretary of the Interior, or a duly designated official of the United States Department of the Interior, has authority to execute this Compact on behalf of the United States Department of Interior pursuant to 43 U.S.C. § 1457 (1986, Supp. 1992);
      NOW THEREFORE, the State of Montana and the United States agree as follows:

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS


      For purposes of this Compact only, the following definitions shall apply:
     (1) "Abstract" means the copy of the document entitled "Abstract of National Park Service Water Rights" referenced in this Compact as Appendix 1 [and] the copy of the document entitled "Abstract of National Park Service Water Rights - BCNRA and LBBNM" referenced in this Compact as Appendix 2.
     (2) "Big Hole National Battlefield" or "BHNB" means those lands located in Montana that were acquired pursuant to, or withdrawn and reserved by Executive Order No. 1216 of June 23, 1910; Presidential Proclamation No. 2339 of June 29, 1939, 53 Stat. 2544; and Act of May 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 18.
     (3) "Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area" or "BCNRA" means those lands located in Montana that were acquired pursuant to, or designated as such by Act of October 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 913.
     (4) "Bureau" means the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology or its successor.
     (5) "Category 1 stream" means a stream that headwaters on the reserved land administered by the National Park Service.
     (6) "Category 1a stream" means a stream that headwaters on the reserved land administered by the National Park Service and which, in part, carries water that drains non-federal land within the boundaries of the same reserved land.
     (7) "Category 2 stream" means a stream that headwaters in a Wilderness Area in Montana outside the respective Park unit which flows into the reserved land administered by the National Park Service, and which is not the source for a consumptive use water right recognized under state law on the effective date of this Compact and drains a hydrologic basin that contains only federal land.
     (8) "Category 3 stream" means a stream that headwaters in Montana outside the reserved land administered by the National Park Service that flows into the reserved land and is the source for consumptive use water rights recognized under state law on the effective date of this Compact.
     (9) "Category 4 stream" means a stream that is treated individually due to special circumstances.
     (10) "Consumptive use" means use of surface water not considered a non-consumptive use under (26) and use of groundwater which is shown to be hydrologically connected to surface water pursuant to Article II.
     (a) "Current consumptive use", when referring to water rights recognized under state law only, means all consumptive use water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993 [, with respect to BHNB, GNP, or YNP and] on or before the effective date of the compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM].
     (b) "Future consumptive use", when referring to a water right recognized under state law only, means a consumptive use water right recognized under state law with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993 [, with respect to BHNB, GNP, or YNP and] after the effective date of the compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM].
     (11) "Credible information" means credible evidence sufficient to support a prima facie basis for the theory asserted.
     (12) "Crow Tribal Water Rights" means those senior reserved water rights and any aboriginal water rights held by the United States in trust for the Crow Tribe which are being quantified as part of the general adjudication of water rights in Montana.
     (13) "Curtailment" means action pursuant to this Compact to reduce or shut-off diversions by a junior water user to satisfy the senior instream flow right of the National Park Service.
     (14) "Department" means the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation or its successor.
     (15) "Effective date of this Compact" means the date of the ratification of the Compact by the Montana legislature, written approval by the United States Department of the Interior, or written approval by the United States Department of Justice, whichever is later.
     (16) "Glacier National Park" or "GNP" means those lands located in Montana that were acquired pursuant to, or withdrawn and reserved by the Act of May 11, 1910, 36 Stat. 354; Act of February 27, 1915, 38 Stat. 814; and Act of April 11, 1972, 86 Stat. 120.
     (17) "Grant Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site" means those lands acquired by the United States and designated as such pursuant to Public Law 92-406, August 25, 1972.
     (18) "Groundwater" means water that is beneath the ground surface.
     (19) (a) "Hydrologically connected" for the purposes of Articles II and III, means groundwater that is connected to surface water such that appropriation at the proposed rate will cause a calculable reduction in surface water flow. A "calculable reduction in surface water flow" means a theoretical reduction based on credible information as opposed to a measured reduction.
     (b) "Hydrologically connected" for the purposes of Article IV, means groundwater that is considered to be connected to the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of Yellowstone National Park based on scientific evidence according to the procedures in Article IV.
     (20) "Hydrothermal system" means the groundwater system, including cold water recharge, transmission and warm water discharge that is hydrologically connected to the hydrothermal features within the reserved land of Yellowstone National Park.
     (21) "Hydrothermal discharge water" means groundwater with a temperature in excess of 59 degrees Fahrenheit that is hydrologically connected to the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of Yellowstone National Park.
     (22) "Hydrothermal feature" means a surface manifestation of a hydrothermal system, including but not limited to: hot springs, geysers, mud pots, and fumaroles.
     (23) "Instream flow" means the water that the parties agree shall remain in the stream in satisfaction of the United States' reserved water right for the purposes of the reserved land.
     (24) "Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument" or "LBBNM" means those lands located in Montana that were acquired pursuant to or withdrawn and reserved by Presidential Proclamation of December 7, 1886, and by Act of March 22, 1946, 60 Stat. 59.
     (25) "Nez Perce National Historical Park" means those lands in Montana acquired and added to the Nez Perce National Historical Park by Congress on October 30, 1992, pursuant to Public Law 102-576.
     (26) (a) "Non-consumptive use" when applied to a mining or hydropower use for which a water right is recognized under state law with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993, [with respect to BHNB, GNP, or YNP and] after the effective date of this compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM], means an appropriation that does not cause a net loss in the surface source of supply, and where substantially all of the diverted water becomes return flow with little or no delay between the time of diversion and the time of return, and without adverse effect on the quantity or quality of water necessary to fulfill the purposes of the reserved land.
     (b) "Non-consumptive use" when applied to a water right recognized under state law other than a mining or hydropower use with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993, [with respect to BHNB, GNP, or YNP and] after the effective date of this compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM], or a water right recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, [with respect to BHNB, GNP, or YNP and] on or before the effective date of this compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM], means a water right considered to be non-consumptive by the decree, permit or law authorizing the use.
     (27) "Parkman Sandstone" means the unit as defined in Moulder, E.A., Klug, M.F., Morris, D.A., and Swenson, F.A. (1960) "Geology and Ground-Water Resources of the Lower Little Bighorn River Valley Big Horn County, Montana," USGS Water Supply Paper 1487, where it occurs along the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries between the Montana-Wyoming line and the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
     (28) "Parties" means the State of Montana and the United States.
     (29) "Person" means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, state agency, political subdivision, or any other entity, but does not include the United States.
     (30) "Quaternary Alluvium" means the unit as defined in Moulder, E.A., Klug, M.F., Morris, D.A., and Swenson, F.A. (1960) "Geology and Ground-Water Resources of the Lower Little Bighorn River Valley Big Horn County, Montana," USGS Water Supply Paper 1487, where it occurs along the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries between the Montana-Wyoming line and the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
     (31) "Quaternary Terrace Deposits" means the unit as defined in Moulder, E.A., Klug, M.F., Morris, D.A., and Swenson, F.A. (1960) "Geology and Ground-Water Resources of the Lower Little Bighorn River Valley Big Horn County, Montana," USGS Water Supply Paper 1487, where it occurs along the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries between the Montana-Wyoming line and the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
     (32) "Recognized under state law" when referring to a water right or use means a water right or use protected by state law, but does not include state recognition of a federal or tribal reserved water right.
     (33) "Return flow" means the portion of water diverted from a source that is returned to the same source, at or near the point of diversion.
     (34) "Scientific evidence" means geologic, geophysical, geochemical and hydrologic information.
     (35) "State" means the State of Montana and all officers, agents, departments, and political subdivisions thereof. Unless otherwise indicated, for purposes of notification or consent, "state" means the Director of the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation or his or her designee.
     (36) "Technical Oversight Committee" or "TOC" means the scientific committee established by Article IV of this Compact.
     (37) "Tributary to" means surface water that originates in the same hydrologic basin or subbasin as the stream referred to and which contributes water to the same stream.
     (38) "Unincorporated municipality" includes but is not limited to a rural special improvement district or any other entity that serves community water needs.
     (39) "United States" means the federal government and all officers, agencies, departments and political subdivisions thereof. Unless otherwise indicated, for purposes of notification or consent other than service in litigation, "United States" means the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, or his or her designees.
     (40) "Working Group Report" means the Abridged and Unabridged reports by Custer, S., et. al. dated January 5, 1993, and titled Recommended Boundary for Controlled Groundwater Area in Montana Near Yellowstone National Park and accompanying maps.
     (41) "Yellowstone National Park" or "YNP" means those lands located in Montana that were acquired pursuant to, or withdrawn and reserved for Yellowstone National Park by the Act of March 1, 1872, 17 Stat. 32; Act of May 26, 1926, 44 Stat. 655; Act of March 1, 1929, 45 Stat. 1435; Act of April 19, 1930, 46 Stat. 220; and Proclamation No. 2013 of October 20, 1932, 47 Stat. 2537.

ARTICLE II IMPLEMENTATION


      A. Abstract:
      Concurrent with this Compact, the parties have prepared an Abstract, a copy of which is referenced as Appendix 1, which is a specific listing of all of the United States' water rights [for Big Hole National Battlefield, Glacier National Park, and Yellowstone National Park, and] prepared an Abstract, a copy of which is referenced as Appendix 2, which is a specific listing of all of the United States' water rights for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument that are described in this Compact and quantified in accordance with this Compact. The parties prepared the Abstract to comply with the requirements for a final decree as set forth in 85-2-234(4) and (7), MCA, and in an effort to assist the state courts in the process of entering decrees accurately and comprehensively reflecting the rights described in this Compact. The rights specified in the Abstract are subject to the terms of this Compact. In the event of a discrepancy between a right listed in the Abstract and that same right as quantified in accordance with Articles II and III of this Compact, the parties intend that the quantification in accordance with Articles II and III of this Compact shall be reflected in a final decree.
      B. Method of Allocation of Water on Category 3 and 4 Streams and of Determining Rights Subject to Curtailment on the Little Bighorn River and its Tributaries:
      This section explains the method of quantification of the reserved instream flow water rights of the United States for Category 3 and 4 streams and the method of calculating the quantity of consumptive use pursuant to state law within a basin to which the United States agrees to subordinate its reserved instream flow water right. The method set forth in this section shall be used to determine whether the limits on consumptive use pursuant to state law set forth in Article III have been reached and whether a water right on the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries upstream from the LBBNM shall be subject to curtailment to satisfy the reserved instream flow water right for LBBNM. Addition to the Abstract of a reserved instream flow water right on a stream inadvertently omitted by the parties or reclassification of a stream due to a water right recognized under state law and inadvertently omitted by the parties shall be consistent with this section and shall not be deemed a modification of this Compact.
      1. Allocation to Instream Flow:
      With the exception of the reserved instream flow rights for LBBNM, the allocation of water to instream flow on Category 3 and 4 streams is arrived at using the following method as explained in general terms:
      a. The United States' reserved water right for instream flow includes the entire flow of that stream within the State of Montana at the point where the stream flows over or forms the boundary of the specified reserved land after: (1) all consumptive use water rights of any agency of the United States recognized under federal or state law are satisfied; and (2) subordination of the reserved water right for instream flow to water rights recognized under state law as set forth in and limited by Article III and more specifically in the Abstract.
      b. Actual use of water in Wyoming or Canada shall not diminish the quantity of water designated for consumptive use pursuant to state law as set forth in Article III.
      2. Method of Calculation of Consumptive Use Rights Recognized Under State Law:
      To determine whether water is available for appropriation for consumptive use pursuant to state law on Category 3 and 4 streams, and for determining whether the limit on subordination of the United States' water rights to consumptive uses has been reached, the following provisions shall apply:
      a. Tributary Water: The calculation of total consumptive use on a Category 3 or 4 stream shall include all current and future consumptive use, recognized under state law, of surface water tributary to the stream to the point it enters the reserved land. The limits on total consumptive use on a Category 4 stream that forms the boundary of the reserved land shall include all current and future consumptive use recognized under state law, of surface water tributary to the stream to the most downstream point that the stream forms the boundary of the reserved land.
      b. Groundwater: [The following sections i., ii., and iii. shall apply to BHNB, GNP, and YNP.] The following sections iii. and iv. shall apply to BCNRA. The following sections iii. and v. shall apply to LBBNM.
      i. An exemption from state permit requirements for wells or developed springs shall not apply to appropriations within a basin tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream after the effective date of this Compact, provided that the registration process set forth in Article II, section B.2.b.ii.(3)(b) shall apply to applications for a permit for a well of 35 gpm or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year. In addition, all groundwater appropriations within the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area shall be subject to Article IV.
      ii. The calculation of total consumptive use on a Category 3 or 4 stream shall include appropriations of groundwater as follows:
     (1) Pre-January 1, 1993: An appropriation of groundwater with a priority date before January 1, 1993, shall not be included in the calculation of total consumptive use.
     (2) January 1, 1993 - Effective Date: An appropriation of groundwater with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993, but before the effective date of this Compact shall be included in the calculation of total consumptive use if the following procedural requirements are met and the appropriation is found to be hydrologically connected to surface water tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream.
     (a) Within 120 days after the effective date of this Compact, the Department shall provide the United States with notice of all groundwater appropriations in drainages tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream that, according to the records of the Department, have a priority date on or after January 1, 1993 and before the effective date of this Compact.
     (b) Up to 120 days following mailing of such notice the United States shall provide the Department with credible information that a groundwater appropriation included in the notice is hydrologically connected to surface flow tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream.
     (c) Within 60 days of receipt of such information, the Department shall issue an order stating that (1) the appropriation is hydrologically connected to surface water tributary to the Category 3 or 4 stream; and (2) the action to be taken with respect to the appropriation. The order is effective within 60 days of issuance unless the appropriator enters an appearance to contest the order. If credible information of hydrologic connection has not been provided by the United States, the Department shall issue an order stating its determination and reasons therefore.
     (d) If the appropriator enters an appearance to contest the order, the Department shall (1) issue an order staying use of the appropriation pending a final decision on the matter by the Department only if the limits on total consumptive use for that drainage have been reached; (2) set a date for a hearing; and (3) proceed pursuant to the provisions for a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated, provided that the burden of proving hydrologic connection shall be as set forth in Article II, section B.2.b.[ii.](3). The Department shall, whenever possible, consolidate any proceedings on the groundwater application pursuant to Article IV with any proceeding made necessary by this Article.
     (3) Post-Effective Date: An appropriation of groundwater recognized under state law with a priority date after the effective date of this Compact shall be included in the calculation of total consumptive use if the following conditions apply:
     (a) Wells in excess of 35 gallons per minute or 10 acre-feet per year: The limit on total consumptive use shall include groundwater appropriation by a well or developed spring with a permit amount in excess of 35 gpm or any well with a volume of use greater than 10 acre-feet per year, including a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs that exceeds these limitations, unless the applicant is able to show by a preponderance of the evidence that the appropriation is not hydrologically connected to surface flow tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream.
     (i) The applicant shall submit credible information, including a report to the Department prepared by a professional qualified in the science of groundwater hydrology verifying that the appropriation is not hydrologically connected to surface flow tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream. If the applicant fails to submit the report, the application shall be considered defective and shall be returned to the applicant for completion as provided by state law.
     (ii) The Department shall provide notice of the proposed appropriation and a copy of the report to the United States concurrent with notice pursuant [to] 85-2-307, MCA.
     (iii) Within 60 days of the mailing of notice, the United States shall file an objection to the proposed appropriation on the basis that it is hydrologically connected to surface water.
     (iv) The Department shall not exclude the appropriation from the limits on total consumptive use unless the applicant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is not hydrologically connected to surface flows tributary to the reserved portion of the Category 3 or 4 stream. In doing so the Department shall make a specific finding on the adequacy of the report provided by the applicant.
     (v) If the proposed appropriation is determined not to be hydrologically connected to surface water, or if the limit on consumptive use has not been reached, the Department may issue a permit in accordance with state law and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
     (b) Wells of 35 gallons per minute or less and 10 acre-feet per year or less:
     (i) An applicant for an appropriation of groundwater of 35 gpm or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year shall register for a permit by filing a form prescribed by the department.
     (ii) The Department shall provide notice of the registration for a permit to the United States within 30 days of the filing. Within 30 days of the receipt of notice, the United States may file an objection to the application on the basis that the proposed appropriation is of groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface flow tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream.
     (iii) As long as the limit on consumptive use rights for a Category 3 or 4 stream has not been reached, the calculation of total consumptive use shall not include groundwater appropriations by well or a developed spring of 35 gallons per minute or less that do not exceed 10 acre feet per year unless the United States shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is hydrologically connected to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream. If the United States meets this burden, the Department shall include the appropriation in the calculation of total consumptive use.
     (iv) After the limit on consumptive use rights has been reached on a particular stream, the necessary showing by the United States' shall be to file an objection and come forward with credible information showing that the proposed appropriation is hydrologically connected to surface flows tributary to the reserved portion of the Category 3 or 4 stream. If the United States makes such a showing, the Department shall consider the application under the criteria in Article II, section B.2.b.[ii.](3)(b)(v) and (vi).
     (v) The Department shall not exclude the appropriation from the limits on total consumptive use unless the applicant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is not hydrologically connected to surface flows tributary to the reserved portion of the Category 3 or 4 stream.
     (vi) If the proposed appropriation is determined not to be hydrologically connected to surface water the Department may issue a permit in accordance with state law and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
      iii. Within 2 years after the effective date of this Compact, the Department, in consultation with the United States, is directed to promulgate rules as may be necessary to implement Article II, section B.2.b. Said rules shall not alter the rights or obligations of the parties hereto.
      iv. The calculation of total future consumptive use on Category 3 or 4 streams at BCNRA shall include appropriations of groundwater as follows:
     (1) The calculation of total future consumptive use shall not include appropriation of groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with an appropriation of 35 gallons per minute (gpm) or less that does not exceed 10 acre feet per year (afy).
     (2) The limit on total consumptive use shall not include an appropriation of groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a permit amount in excess of 35 gpm or with a volume of use greater than 10 afy, including a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs that exceeds these limitations, unless the United States shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is hydrologically connected to surface water tributary to the reserved portion of a Category 3 or 4 stream. If the United States meets this burden, the Department shall include the appropriation in the calculation of total consumptive use.
     (a) The Department shall provide notice of the proposed appropriation to the United States concurrent with notice pursuant to 85-2-307, MCA.
     (b) Within 60 days of the mailing of notice, the United States may file an objection to the proposed appropriation on the basis that it is hydrologically connected to surface water.
     (c) If the proposed appropriation is determined not to be hydrologically connected to surface water, or if the limit on consumptive use has not been reached, the Department may issue a permit in accordance with state law and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
      v. Determination of whether an appropriation of groundwater after the effective date of the this Compact shall be subject to a curtailment to satisfy the instream flow water right at LBBNM shall be made as follows:
     (1) Groundwater appropriations subject to curtailment shall not include an appropriation of groundwater for stock or domestic purposes by means of a well or developed spring with an appropriation of 35 gpm or less that does not exceed 10 afy.
     (2) Groundwater appropriations subject to curtailment to satisfy the 51 cfs instream flow water rights for LBBNM shall not include an appropriation of groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a permit amount in excess of 35 gpm or with a volume of use greater than 10 afy, including a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs that exceeds these limitations, unless the United States shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is hydrologically connected to the Little Bighorn River or its tributaries upstream from LBBNM.
     (a) The Department shall provide notice of the proposed appropriation to the United States concurrent with notice pursuant to 85-2-307, MCA.
     (b) Within 60 days of the mailing of notice, the United States may file an objection to the proposed appropriation on the basis that it is hydrologically connected to surface water.
     (c) If the proposed appropriation is determined not to be hydrologically connected to surface water the Department may issue a permit in accordance with state law and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
     (d) If the proposed appropriation is determined to be hydrologically connected to surface water the Department may issue the permit in accordance with state law with notice that the appropriation is subject to curtailment to satisfy the instream flow water right of the LBBNM and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
     (3) Groundwater appropriations subject to curtailment to satisfy the 950 cfs instream flow water rights for LBBNM shall not include an appropriation of groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a permit amount in excess of 35 gpm or with a volume of use greater than 10 afy, including a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs that exceeds these limitations, unless the United States shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the proposed appropriation is hydrologically connected to the Little Bighorn River or its tributaries upstream from LBBNM and the appropriation is completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone.
     (a) The Department shall provide notice of the proposed appropriation to the United States concurrent with notice pursuant to 85-2-307, MCA.
     (b) Within 60 days of the mailing of notice, the United States may file an objection to the proposed appropriation on the basis that it is hydrologically connected to surface water and the proposed appropriation is to be completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone.
     (c) If the proposed appropriation is determined not to be hydrologically connected to surface water or not to be completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone the Department may issue a permit in accordance with state law and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
     (d) If the proposed appropriation is determined to be hydrologically connected to surface water and to be completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone the Department may issue the permit in accordance with state law with notice that the appropriation is subject to curtailment to satisfy the instream flow water right of the LBBNM and the applicant may complete the appropriation.
      c. Effect of Decree in Calculation of Consumptive Use: Except as provided in Article II, section G., for the purposes of this Compact, the flow rate of a consumptive use shall be as finally decreed in a general adjudication, or recognized under state law until such final decree. At each stage in an adjudication, the allocation to current use as set forth in Article III and more specifically in the Abstract shall be adjusted to reflect the decreed amount.
      d. Abandonment: When a consumptive use right recognized under state law on a Category 3 or 4 stream is abandoned and such abandonment causes water to become available for appropriation within the limits of the total amounts of water allocated to consumptive use rights recognized under state law established for that stream by Article III, the increment of water below that limit is available for new appropriation in accordance with state law and this Compact. State law governs the issue of whether an abandonment has occurred.
      e. Non-Consumptive Use: The limit on total consumptive use rights recognized under state law shall not include non-consumptive uses as defined by this Compact.
      C. Subordination of Instream Flow Right:
      1. The United States agrees to subordinate its reserved water right for instream flow to consumptive uses calculated according to this Article in a manner that is specific to each stream on which a reserved water right is described. This subordination is set forth for each stream in Article III. Curtailment of uses to which the reserved water rights described in this Compact have not been subordinated during periods of low flow shall proceed on the basis of priority and may be initiated in a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to Article II, sections I and K.
      2. The reserved water rights described in this Compact shall not be subordinate to water rights which were forfeited by 85-2-212 [or] 85-2-226 as interpreted in In the Matter of the Adjudication of the Water Rights within the Yellowstone River, 253 Mont. 167, 832 P.2d 1210 (1992), nor shall any claimant of such forfeited water right have standing, based solely on such claimed right, to object to this Compact or any reserved water right described in this Compact, provided that water allocated to future consumptive use pursuant to Article III[B.] of this Compact may be used to satisfy claims filed pursuant to 85-2-221(3), MCA in order of priority.
      D. Location of Instream Flow Rights: The United States' reserved water rights for instream flow apply to the portion of the Categories 1 through 4 streams specified in this Compact that flow over or form the boundary to reserved land administered by the National Park Service.
      E. Change in Instream Flow Right: Except as provided in Article II, section J.2.b., the water rights dedicated to instream flow by this Compact shall not be changed to any other use.
      F. Prohibition on Future Impoundments: With the exception of the North Fork of the Big Hole River and its tributaries, no new impoundments may be permitted on the mainstem of a Category 2, 3, or 4 stream upstream of, or along, the portion of the stream for which a water right for instream flow is described in this Compact [and] no new impoundments may be permitted on the mainstem of the Little Bighorn River in Montana upstream of the LBBNM after the effective date of this Compact. This prohibition shall include impoundments that are exempt from permit requirements under state law. Reclamation, repair or rehabilitation of an existing impoundment shall not be considered a new impoundment, provided that without the consent of the United States, reclamation, repair or rehabilitation shall not cause the impoundment to exceed the original constructed capacity of the impoundment. This prohibition shall not apply to impoundments constructed to store a Tribal water right or to implement settlement of litigation regarding quantification of a Tribal water right. On Category 3 and 4 streams for which an instream flow right is described for periods of low flow as set forth in Article III, sections G.3.c. and d., such water right has not been subordinated to a new water right with the method of diversion as an impoundment on the mainstem of the stream with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993, but before the effective date of this Compact.
      G. Management to Maximize Use by Montana Water Users of the Water Allocated to Consumptive Use Rights Recognized Under State Law: If any type of conservation or water distribution plan which includes measurement of actual water use, including use pursuant to rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, [with respect to BHNB, GNP, and YNP and] before the effective date of this compact [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM], is adopted pursuant to state law, the limits established for consumptive use appropriated pursuant to state law shall apply to actual measured use, not permitted and decreed or claimed rights, provided that records of actual use be made available to the United States on request and provided further that, such plan shall not diminish the reserved water right of the United States as described in this Compact.
      H. Basin Closure
      1. Except as provided in Article II, section B.2.d., in the following drainage basins upstream of the portion of the stream for which a reserved water right for instream flow is described in this Compact, the Department shall not process or grant an application or registration for a permit to appropriate or to reserve water for future consumptive use as defined by this Compact once the limits on consumptive use tabulated in Article III and set forth more specifically in the Abstract are reached:
      Big Hole National Battlefield:
      North Fork of the Big Hole River
      Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area:
      Dry Head, Deadman, Davis and Layout Creeks
      Glacier National Park:
      North Fork of the Flathead River
      Middle Fork of the Flathead River
      Yellowstone National Park:
      Bacon Rind, Buffalo, Cottonwood, Coyote, Hellroaring, Little Cottonwood, Snowslide, Crevice, Dry Canyon, Slough, Tepee, and Soda Butte Creeks, and the Gallatin, Madison, and Yellowstone Rivers
      2. If a temporary or permanent basin closure is enacted under state law for a drainage basin or subbasin for which future consumptive water use is limited under this Compact, the most restrictive measures applicable to consumptive use of surface or groundwater shall control.
      I. Enforcement of Water Right
      1. The United States, the state, or the holder of a water right recognized under state law, may petition a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction for relief when a controversy arises between the United States' reserved water right described by this Compact, and a holder of a water right recognized under state law. Resolution of the controversy shall be governed by the terms of this Compact where applicable, or to the extent not applicable, by applicable state or federal law.
      2. The United States agrees that a water commissioner appointed by a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction, or other official authorized by future changes in law, may enter a federal reservation for which a water right is described in this Compact for the purpose of data collection, including the collection of information necessary for water distribution on or off the federal reservation, and to inspect structures for the diversion and measurement of water described in this Compact for consumptive use and for the measurement of instream flow. The terms of entry shall be as specified in an order of a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction.
      3. The Department or the Bureau may enter a federal enclave for which a reserved water right is described in this Compact, at a reasonable hour of the day, for the purposes of data collection on water diversion and stream flow or inspection of devices maintained by the United States pursuant to this Compact. The Department or Bureau shall notify the United States by certified mail or in person, at least 24 hours prior to entry.
      4. The United States may request an investigation by the Department of a diversion located upstream of the reserved portion of a stream for which a reserved water right is described in this Compact. The Department may investigate. If an investigation occurs, the United States may accompany the Department.
      5. The United States shall maintain structures, including wellhead equipment and casing, for the diversion and measurement of water authorized for consumptive use by this Compact. The United States shall maintain the devices it deems necessary for enforcement of its reserved water right for instream flow described in this Compact. The United States shall install and maintain a rated gauge to measure instream flows in the Little Bighorn River. The gauge on the Little Bighorn River shall be on the reach of the river which forms the boundary of the LBBNM, the exact location of which shall be at the discretion of the NPS. The NPS shall resurvey the channel cross section as necessary to maintain gauge accuracy, but in any event not less frequently than every three (3) years. The United States may not seek curtailment of junior water uses unless the channel has been resurveyed within three (3) years of the date on which curtailment is sought.
      6. A person who violates or refuses or neglects to comply with the provisions of this Compact, an order of the Department pursuant to this Compact, or an action by the Bureau pursuant to this Compact is subject to the penalties provided by state law, including but not limited to, revocation of a permit issued pursuant to Article IV after the effective date of this Compact.
      7. For any appeal to state court of an administrative decision authorized by this Compact, venue shall be the First Judicial District in Helena and the review shall be conducted according to the procedures for judicial review of contested cases under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated.
      8. In any contested case proceeding held under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated, pursuant to this Compact, the common law and statutory rules of evidence shall apply only upon stipulation of all parties to a proceeding.
      J. Change in Use
      1. Change in Use Defined: For the purpose of this Article, the following actions affecting the use of a reserved water right for consumptive use described in this Compact shall be considered a change in use:
      a. An action that alters type of use, place of use, point of diversion, place or means of storage, period of use or point of return flow that will:
      i. increase the net depletion on a source; or
      ii. adversely affect water quality at the point the reserved water right ends; or
      iii. result in a change in point of diversion or point of return flow relative to a holder of a water right recognized under state law; or
      iv. change the point of diversion from groundwater to surface water, or from surface to groundwater; or
      v. in any other manner, adversely affects the reasonable exercise of a water right that is recognized under state law.
      b. The exercise of a reserved water right to future consumptive use as authorized by this Compact shall not be considered a change in use.
      2. Instream flow: Reserved water rights specified in this Compact for instream flow shall not be subject to change to any other use, provided that:
      a. the emergency use of water for fire suppression as provided for in Article III.H. shall not be deemed a change or alteration in use, or violation of a reserved water right for instream flow; and
      b. the United States may seek to appropriate water for a consumptive use on a source for which no consumptive use is described in this Compact by seeking a permit under state law for consumptive use, provided that the water right granted shall not be counted against the limits on allocation for state consumptive use water rights imposed by this Compact. The water right so acquired shall be administered in accordance with Article V, section B.
      3. Consumptive uses: The United States may take action affecting the use of its consumptive use water rights provided that (1) the action shall be in fulfillment of the purposes of the reservation; (2) the total use shall not exceed the amount described in this Compact; and (3) the action shall not adversely affect a water right that is recognized under state law.
      4. Notice of intent to change use: At least 180 days prior to a change in use, the United States agrees to provide notice to the Department.
      a. The notice shall contain the facts pertinent to the proposed change including, where applicable:
      i. The location of a new point of diversion.
      ii. The new source of water.
      iii. The new means of diversion.
      iv. If a well is involved, the depth and locations of the old and new well.
      v. The new use and its impact on actual consumption and water quality.
      vi. If the change includes storage, the location, period and capacity of the storage facility.
      vii. An estimate of when the change will be effective.
      viii. A map showing the existing system and the proposed change.
      b. At least 120 days prior to the proposed change, the United States agrees to publish the notice required by Article II, section J.4.a. with a statement that within 60 days following publication or service of notice, relief may be sought in a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction, once in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of the source, and to serve the notice by first-class mail on interested and potentially affected persons as identified by the records of the Department, including:
      i. an appropriator of water or applicant for or holder of a permit who, according to the records of the Department, may be affected by the proposed appropriation;
      ii. a purchaser under contract for deed that, according to the records of the Department, may be affected by the proposed appropriation;
      iii. any public agency that has reserved water in the source recognized under state law; and
      iv. a federal agency or Tribe that claims a reserved water right or other water rights in the source.
      c. On request by the United States, the Department shall provide the information contained in its records identifying any person potentially affected by the proposed change. The United States agrees to reimburse the Department for the expense of providing this information.
      d. In the event that future changes in state law establish a method of notice of a proposed change in use to interested and potentially affected persons other than by first-class mail, the United States may alter the method of notification accordingly.
      e. Prior to the actual change, the United States agrees to provide the Department with proof of notice by affidavit.
      5. Objection to proposed change: Within 60 days following the notice pursuant to Article II, section J.4.b., the Department or any other person may bring an action against the proposed change in use in a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction, if a property right, water right, or other interest protected under state law would be adversely affected, or if the proposed change is not in compliance with this Compact.
      6. Notice of Change:
      a. The United States agrees to notify the state and provide a copy of the final order within 60 days of its entry by a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction resolving any objections to the change in use of a federal reserved water right described in this Compact,
      b. The United States agrees to provide the state with notice of completion of the change within 60 days after the completion.
      7. Reporting by the United States: For any action affecting the use of a consumptive right whether or not such action is deemed a change in use, the United States agrees to provide the following information to the Department:
      a. Well log: For a use that includes the drilling of a well or enlargement of an existing wellbore, the United States agrees to provide a well log to the state within 60 days of the completion of the well.
      b. Emergency Use: Within 60 days after the commencement of a temporary emergency use for fire suppression described in Section III.H. of this Compact, the United States agrees to notify the state of the use to which the water was put, the dates of use, and the estimated amount of water used.
      c. Annual Report: Between April 1 and May 1 of each year, the United States agrees to provide the Department with a report on (1) actions during the preceding year affecting the use of a consumptive use right described in this Compact, regardless of whether the action is deemed a change in use pursuant to Article II, section J.1.; (2) the initiation of new uses that were completed during the preceding year; and (3) any data and documents generated or received by the National Park Service during the preceding year on measurement of instream flow on a Category 3 or 4 stream.
      8. Reporting by the State: Between December 1 and December 31 of each year, the Department shall provide the United States with a report of: (1) changes in use during the preceding year, as defined by state law, of water rights upstream of or within the boundaries of reserved land for which a reserved water right is described in this Compact; (2) new permits issued during the preceding year according to the records of the Department; and (3) any data and documents generated by the Department during the preceding year on the measurement of streamflows, diversions and well use on or tributary to Category 3 or 4 streams.
      K. Administration of Little Bighorn Instream Flow
      This section governs the administration of instream flow rights of the United States on the Little Bighorn River described in Article III. section E.3., in relation to junior water rights initiated after the effective date of this Compact to which the United States has not subordinated and which are not a part of the Crow Tribal Water Rights. Nothing in these provisions, or in this Compact, regarding administration affects or in any way impairs any ability or authority of the Crow Tribe to administer, regulate or manage any water rights within the boundaries of the Crow Indian Reservation.
      1. For purposes of administering the instream flow water right of the United States described in Article III. section E.3. the United States shall establish and maintain a discharge gauge at the LBBNM gauge site. The United States shall keep a record of daily flows for the period from March 1 through June 30 of each year in which the United States seeks curtailment of junior water rights.
      2. The United States may seek curtailment to enforce its 950 cfs instream flow water right, described in Article III. section E.3.b., at the LBBNM gauge site any time from May 1 through June 30. The decision to seek curtailment shall be initiated by the NPS and at the NPS's discretion.
      a. A decision to seek curtailment to enforce the 950 cfs instream flow water right shall be based on a determination that the flow at the LBBNM gauge site plus claimed or permitted appropriations by non-subordinated junior water users equals 950 cfs or more.
      b. Once curtailment is sought and confirmed as set forth in Article II. section K.3, it may last for up to 15 consecutive days, or through June 30, whichever occurs first, provided, however, that the 15 days shall be reduced by subtracting the number of days between March 1st and the date of confirmation of curtailment that the flow at the LBBNM gauge site has equalled or exceeded 950 cfs.
      c. Any curtailment based upon the 950 cfs water right shall be limited to direct surface diversions from the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries, and wells completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone, as described in Article II. section B.2.b.v.(3).
      3. Notice by NPS that it seeks curtailment to enforce the 950 cfs instream flow water right shall be by either written or verbal notice to the appropriate DNRC office. The NPS shall use its best efforts to maintain contact with the DNRC beginning May 1st of each year to provide advance warning of stream flow conditions.
      a. Upon receipt of notice from the NPS that the United States requests curtailment to enforce the 950 cfs instream flow water right, the DNRC shall, within 24 hours, verify actual diversions by non-subordinated junior water users and confirm that the sum of flow at the LBBNM and actual diversions by non-subordinated junior water users equals or exceeds 950 cfs. If the DNRC determines that the actual diversions are insufficient to bring the flow at the LBBNM gauge site to 950 cfs, it shall not proceed with curtailment. If a decision is made not to proceed with curtailment, the DNRC shall notify the NPS the same day. After notification, the NPS may again seek curtailment beginning the following day if conditions of flow and time of year meet the conditions set forth in Article II. section K.2.
      b. If the DNRC proceeds with curtailment to enforce the 950 cfs water right, the DNRC shall, without delay, shut off non-subordinated junior water uses in reverse order of priority to the extent necessary to bring the flow at the LBBNM gauge site to 950 cfs, provided that, DNRC has the discretion to forgo curtailment of a particular water right if it determines that curtailment of that water right to satisfy the 950 cfs instream flow right would be futile.
      c. Should flow at the LBBNM gauge site exceed 950 cfs at any time during curtailment, the DNRC may reopen diversions in order of priority until 950 cfs is reached. Should the flow at the LBBNM gauge site drop below 950 cfs at any time during the curtailment, non-subordinated junior water uses shall remain shut off provided that, if the NPS reasonably determines the flow at the LBBNM gauge site is not likely to come back up to 950 cfs during the remainder of the curtailment period, it may consent to end the curtailment.
      4. Notice by NPS that it seeks curtailment to enforce the 51 cfs instream flow water right described in Article III. section E.3.a., shall be by either written or verbal notice to the appropriate DNRC office. Upon receipt of notice from the NPS that the United States requests a curtailment to enforce the 51 cfs instream flow water right, the DNRC shall, within 24 hours, verify actual diversions by non-subordinated junior water users. If diversions are being made by non-subordinated junior water users, the DNRC shall, without delay, shut off non-subordinated junior water uses in order of priority to the extent necessary to bring the flow at the LBBNM gauge site to 51 cfs, provided that, DNRC has the discretion to forgo curtailment of a particular water right if it determines that curtailment of that water right to satisfy the 51 cfs instream flow right would be futile.
      5. All permits within the Little Bighorn River Basin upstream of the LBBNM gauge site with a priority date after the effective date of this Compact shall be conditioned on the prior right of the NPS for 950 cfs instream flow water right at the LBBNM during May and June, and for the 51 cfs instream flow water right during any portion of the year, and on the authority of DNRC to curtail use to satisfy the instream flow right.
      6. All diversions from the Little Bighorn River or its tributaries above LBBNM with a priority date after the effective date of this Compact, shall have the duty to establish and maintain a controllable headgate and an adequate measuring device and shall also be required to maintain a record of daily water diversions, including noting the number of hours for which diversions are made for each day and the flow rate at which water is diverted.
      7. DNRC and NPS shall work together to develop a quantitative prediction relationship between the flow at the LBBNM gauge site, diversions by non-subordinated junior water users, and the prediction of curtailment requirements.
      8. Either party has the right to petition a court of competent jurisdiction for administration of water rights or for appointment of a water commissioner should cooperative administration not be proceeding as planned or should cooperative administration become burdensome. Any water commissioner shall enforce the curtailment as described in this Compact. Exhaustion of administrative remedies pursuant to this Article is not a prerequisite to any such suit.

ARTICLE III WATER RIGHT


      The parties agree that the following water rights are in settlement of the reserved water rights of the United States for the reservations described. The parties to this agreement recognize that the water rights for these NPS Units [BCNRA and LBBNM] are junior to Crow Tribal Water Rights. All reserved water rights described in this Article are subject to Article V, section A.
      A. Big Hole National Battlefield
      1. Priority Date
      The United States has a priority date of June 29, 1939 for the reserved water rights described in this Compact for BHNB.
      2. Consumptive Use
      The United States has a reserved water right for current and future consumptive use for the purposes of the BHNB as set forth in Table 1. The period of use shall be from January 1 through December 31. The source and place of use shall be as set forth more specifically in the Abstract. The place of use or point of diversion of a consumptive use water right at BHNB shall include any non-reserved land within BHNB boundaries as the boundaries exist on the effective date of this Compact.

TABLE 1 United States National Park Service Big Hole National Battlefield Consumptive Use

Place of UseTotalMaximum
VolumeFlow Rate
(ac-ft)(gpm)
Visitor center
Museum
Maintenance area
Residences
Picnic area
Irrigation
Total for all use7.1450

      3. Instream Flow
      The North Fork of the Big Hole River is designated a Category 4 stream where it flows over the reserved land of BHNB. The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the North Fork of the Big Hole River where it flows over the reserved land of BHNB. The reserved water right for instream flow is quantified and defined as follows:
      a. Instream Flow Quantification for November through March: The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the North Fork of the Big Hole River at the point the river enters the reserved land of BHNB in the amount of 10 cfs for November through March. The instream flow water right is subordinate to (1) any use recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993; (2) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (3) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use pursuant to Article II.
      b. Instream Flow Quantification for April through October: The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the North Fork of the Big Hole River for April through October in the amount of water left in the river after satisfaction of current and future consumptive uses pursuant to state law in the amounts up to but no greater than provided in Table 2, provided, that the limits of Table 2 notwithstanding, the instream flow water right of the United States is subordinate to (1) any water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993; (2) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (3) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use pursuant to Article II.

TABLE 2 State Law Based Total Current and Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of the North Fork of the Big Hole River

MonthConsumptive Use
April 4.85
May23.85
June18.70
July4.05
Aug.1.75
Sept.1.35
Oct.1.50

      4. Nothing in this Compact may affect an existing right to divert water from a point within BHNB and transport it for use off BHNB.
      B. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area
      1. Priority Date: The United States has a priority date of October 15, 1966 for the water rights described in this Compact for Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. The United States recognizes that its water rights for the BCNRA are junior in priority to Crow Tribal Water Rights.
      2. Consumptive Use: The United States has water rights for current and future consumptive use for the purposes of the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BCNRA) as set forth in the following Table [3]. The period of use shall be from January 1 through December 31. The source and place of use shall be as set forth more specifically in the Abstract.

TABLE 3 United States National Park Service Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area Consumptive Use

Place of UseTotalMaximum
VolumeFlow Rate
(ac-ft)(gpm)
Fort Smith Visitor center17.6110
Ok-A Beh/Marina6.935
Grapevine Creek Overflow
Campground12.5110
Barry's Landing, Trail Creek,
Chain Canyon29.3180
Bighorn River Ranch4.735
Layout Creek Ranger Station,
Sorenson Ranch140.4230
Lockhart Ranch25.6110
Hillsboro Site11.0230
Stock and Wildlife Watering3.5
Total Volume of Use:251.5 acre-feet

      3. Instream Flow
      The United States has water rights for instream flow in the streams which flow over the land of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. These water rights for instream flow are quantified and defined as follows:
      a. Category 1a:
      i. Identification: The following streams are designated as "Category 1a": North Fork Trail Creek, South Fork Trail Creek, and Trail Creek.
      ii. Instream Flow: The United States has a water right for instream flow on the Category 1a streams where they enter the BCNRA in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less (1) any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact and any Crow Tribal Water Rights; and (2) all water rights appurtenant to nonfederal land within the boundaries of BCNRA recognized under state law and having a priority date before the effective date of this Compact.
      In the event that all non-federal land on a Category 1a stream is acquired by the United States for the purpose of addition to BCNRA, the stream may be reclassified as a Category 1 stream at the request of the United States.
      b. Category 3:
      i. Identification: The following streams are designated as "Category 3": Dry Head Creek, Deadman Creek, Davis Creek (aka Medicine Creek), and Layout Creek.
      ii. The United States has a water right for instream flow on Category 3 streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact, and any Crow Tribal Water Rights, provided that, the instream flow right is subordinate to (1) the sum of all water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact, plus any future consumptive use rights calculated according to Article II of this Compact until the limit on future consumptive use set forth in the Table [4] below is reached; (2) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; (3) any use for instream stockwatering or for stockwater or domestic uses by wells or developed springs with an appropriation of 35 gpm or less that does not exceed 10 afy; and (4) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II of this Compact.

TABLE 4 State Law Based Total Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of Category 3 Streams

Dry HeadDeadmanDavisLayout
2.23*1.59**0.500.11

      * Or the amount of net depletions reasonably necessary to irrigate 20 acres, whichever is largest.
      ** Or the amount of net depletions reasonably necessary to irrigate 35 acres, whichever is largest.
      c. Category 4:
      i. Identification: The following streams are designated as "Category 4": Pete's Canyon Creek, the tributary of Deadman Creek that issues from Annerer Spring and flows across BCNRA land in the N1/2NW1/4 Sec. 8, T8S, R29E, M.P.M.
     (1) The United States has a water right for instream flow on Pete's Canyon Creek in the amount of one-half (1/2) of the naturally occurring flow that originates from Pete's Spring.
     (2) The United States has a water right for the tributary of Deadman Creek, in the amount of one (1) gallon per minute.
      4. Springs
      The United States has a water right for instream flows for the following springs identified by location, in the amount of the entire flow of the springs, less any consumptive use rights of the United States described by this Compact.
Sorenson SpringSec. 09, T9S, R28E
Lockhart #1 SpringSec. 13, T8S, R28E
Lockhart #2 SpringSec. 13, T8S, R28E
Hillsboro SpringSec. 36, T8S, R28E

      This list of springs may be modified based on field verification of any spring located entirely within the boundaries of the BCNRA that is not the source of a water right recognized under state law. Springs that occur on Crow Reservation lands are excluded from any water rights for springs.
      C. Glacier National Park
      1. Priority Date
      The United States has a priority date of May 11, 1910 for reserved water rights described in this Compact for GNP. The United States recognizes that this date is junior to the priority dates for reserved water rights of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Indian Reservation, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation.
      2. Consumptive Use
      The United States has a reserved water right for current and future consumptive use for the purposes of GNP as set forth in Table 5. The period of use shall be from January 1 through December 31. The source and place of use shall be as set forth more specifically in the Abstract. The place of use or point of diversion of a consumptive use water right at GNP shall include any non-reserved land within GNP boundaries as the boundaries exist on the effective date of this Compact.

TABLE 5 United States National Park Service Glacier National Park Consumptive Use

Place of UseTotalMaximum
VolumeFlow Rate
(ac-ft)(gpm)
North Fork Flathead River Basin
Station, campground4.770
Backcountry Use1.98
Backcountry Patrol Cabins2.0655
Middle Fork Flathead River Basin
McDonald Creek areas246.001720
Middle Fork areas0.7010
Backcountry Use2.42
Backcountry Patrol Cabins2.0655
Saint Mary River Basin
Northern Border areas2.2020
Many Glacier areas166.40600
Saint Mary areas128.40915
Backcountry Use2.02
Backcountry Patrol Cabins1.5040
Two Medicine River Basin
Two Medicine areas6.4070
Backcountry Use0.38
Backcountry Patrol Cabins0.195
Cut Bank River Basin
Backcountry Use0.18
Backcountry Patrol Cabins0.19
Milk River Basin
Backcountry Use0.02
GNP TOTAL567.80

      3. Instream Flow Right
      a. Category 1:
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as "Category 1:"
      Sage, Spruce, Kishenehn, Starvation, Kintla, Red Medicine Bow, Agassiz, Ford, Parke, Long Bow, Akokala, Numa, Pocket, Jefferson, Bowman, Rainbow, Cummings, Logging, Anaconda, McGee, Camas, Fern, Fish, Howe, Longfellow, Trapper, Continental, Flattop, Kipp, Cattle Queen, Ahern, Mineral, Alder, Haystack, Logan, Hidden, Avalanche, Snyder, Sprague, Walton, Lincoln, Thompson, Pacific, Stimson, Nyack, Peril, Pinchot, Elk, Coal, Muir, Park, Debris, Ole, Shields, Autumn, Upper Bear, Boundary, Olson, South Fork Valentine, Valentine, Kootenai, Pass, Camp, Cleveland, Street, Whitecrow, Redgap, Lee, Otatso, Kennedy, Windy, Appekunny, Ptarmigan, Iceberg, Wilbur, Cataract, Allen, Swiftcurrent, Boulder, Two Dog, Rose, Baring, Siyeh, Reynolds, Virginia, Medicine Owl, Hudson Bay, Red Eagle, Atlantic, North Fork Cut Bank, Lake, Dry Fork, Aster, Paradise, Appistoki, Two Medicine, Fortymile, Fortyone Mile, Midvale, Railroad, Coonsa, Long Knife, Jackson, Grinnell, Kaina, Lunch, Pyramid, Thunderbird and Upper Summit Creeks and Waterton, St. Mary, North Fork Belly, Mokowanis and Belly Rivers.
      ii. Instream Flow
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the Category 1 streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact. This reserved water right ends at the point the stream exits the reserved land of GNP. The relationship between this water right and a water right to water stored within GNP held by the United States shall be governed by the rule of priority.
      b. Category 1a Streams
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as "Category 1a:"
      Apgar, Canyon, Dutch, Harrison, McDonald, and Quartz Creeks.
      ii. Instream Flow:
     (a) The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the Category 1a streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less (1) any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact; and (2) all water rights appurtenant to non-federal land within the boundaries of GNP recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993. This reserved water right ends at the most downstream point that the stream exits the reserved land of GNP.
     (b) In the event all non-federal land on a Category 1a stream is acquired by the United States for the purpose of addition to GNP, the stream may be reclassified as a Category 1 stream at the request of the United States.
      c. Category 4 Streams
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as Category 4: the North Fork of the Flathead River, the Middle Fork of the Flathead River, Divide, Jule, Rubideau and Wild Creeks.
      ii. Instream Flow for the North and Middle Forks of the Flathead River:
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the North and Middle Forks of the Flathead River in the amount of the entire flow of the rivers, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact provided that, the instream flow water right is subordinate to 1) all water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, 2) future consumptive use rights calculated according to Article II up to the limits set forth in Table 6; (3) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (4) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II. This reserved water right ends at the most downstream point that the River forms the boundary of the reserved land of GNP.

TABLE 6 State Law Based Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of the Flathead River

MonthNorth ForkMiddle Fork
Flathead RiverFlathead River
Jan.7.5 7.1
Feb.7.2 6.9
Mar.8.9 8.1
April##
May##
June##
July40.5#
Aug.16.213.7
Sept.11.8 9.7
Oct.11.810.6
Nov.12.011.6
Dec.9.0 9.2

      # The amount of water available for future consumptive use in these months shall be an amount equivalent to the flow rate for all consumptive uses recognized under state law on December 31, 1992. The amount shall be adjusted to reflect the flow rates in a decree issued by a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction after December 31, 1992. At such time as final decrees are entered in these basins, the Department shall tabulate these rights, insert the appropriate amounts into Table 6, and submit the revised Table to the United States and the state for inclusion in this Compact. Revision of Table 6 to reflect this agreement shall not be deemed a modification of this Compact.
      iii. Instream Flow for Divide, Jule, Rubideau and Wild Creeks
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on Divide, Jule, Rubideau, and Wild Creeks in the amount of the entire flow of the stream, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact. This water right ends at the most downstream point that the stream exits or no longer forms the boundary to the reserved land of GNP. This right is subject to the provisions of Article V, section A., and (1) on Divide Creek, is subordinate to any water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993; and (2) on Rubideau Creek, is subordinate to any water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, provided that the use of such right is consistent with federal law.
      4. Lakes
      The United States has a reserved water right for the maintenance of natural water levels in all naturally occurring lakes within the boundaries of GNP for the purpose of preserving unimpaired these Park resources. The water right for the maintenance of lake levels is subordinate to (1) any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact; and (2) any water right recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993. The named and unnamed lakes in which the United States has a reserved water right are those set forth specifically in the Abstract.
      D. Grant Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site
      The Grant Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Montana does not include reserved land. The United States may apply for a permit to appropriate water or seek recognition of any existing water rights in accordance with state law.
      E. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument
      1. Priority Date
      a. The United States has a priority date of December 7, 1886 for current and future consumptive uses under the water rights reserved for the irrigation, maintenance and administration of the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. The United States recognizes that its water rights for the BCNRA are junior in priority to Crow Tribal Water Rights.
      b. The United States has a priority date of March 22, 1946 for the instream flow water rights reserved for use as part of the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, and necessary for historical interpretation of the battle. The United States recognizes that its water rights for the LBBNM are junior in priority to Crow Tribal Water Rights.
      2. Consumptive Use
      a. The United States has a reserved water right for current and future consumptive uses for the purposes of LBBNM as set forth in Table 7. The period of use shall be from January 1 through December 31. The place of use or point of diversion of a consumptive use water right at LBBNM shall include any non-reserved land within LBBNM boundaries as the boundaries exist on the effective date of this Compact.

TABLE 7 United States National Park Service Little Bighorn National Battlefield Consumptive Use

Place of UseTotalMaximumSource
VolumeFlow Rate
(ac-ft)(gpm)
Cemetery, Visitors Center,
Administrative Offices,
Residences, Historic Buildings84.9450ground-
Maintenance Area, and Firehouse water
Facilities. well

      3. Instream Flow
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the Little Bighorn River where it forms the boundary of the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument as follows:
      a. The United States has a reserved water right for minimum instream flow in the amount of 51.0 cfs with a priority of March 22, 1946, for the period January 1 through December 31, provided that, the instream flow water right is subordinate to:
     (1) any water rights recognized under the state law with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact;
     (2) any instream stockwater use;
     (3) any use of groundwater through wells or developed springs with an appropriation of 35 gpm or less that does not exceed 10 afy;
     (4) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact;
     (5) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II of this Compact.
      b. The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow in the amount of 950 cfs, with a priority date of March 22, 1946, for 15 days during the period of May 1st through June 30th, subject to the terms and conditions regarding implementation as set forth in Article II, section K, provided that, the instream flow water right is subordinate to:
     (1) any water rights recognized under the state law with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact;
     (2) any instream stockwater use;
     (3) any use of ground water from wells completed outside of the Quaternary Alluvium or Quaternary Terrace Deposits of the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries or the Parkman Sandstone;
     (4) any use of groundwater from wells or developed springs completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone with an appropriation of 35 gpm or less that does not exceed 10 afy;
     (5) any use of groundwater from wells completed in the Quaternary Alluvium, Quaternary Terrace Deposits, or the Parkman Sandstone with a permit amount in excess of 35 gpm or 10 afy that is not determined to be hydrologically connected to the Little Bighorn River or its tributaries pursuant to Article II. section B.2.b.v. of this Compact;
     (6) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact.
      c. Instream Flow Rights Not Cumulative: The 950 cfs instream flow, when it occurs, is not additive to the 51.0 cfs year-round minimum flow.
      F. Nez Perce National Historical Park
      The Nez Perce National Historical Park in Montana does not include reserved land. The United States may apply for a permit to appropriate water or seek recognition of any existing water rights in accordance with state law.
      G. Yellowstone National Park
      1. Priority Date
      The United States has a priority date of March 1, 1872 for the reserved water rights described in this Compact for YNP.
      2. Consumptive Use
      The United States has a reserved water right for current and future consumptive use for the purposes of YNP as set forth in Table 8. The period of use shall be from January 1 through December 31. The source and place of use shall be as set forth more specifically in the Abstract. The place of use or point of diversion of a consumptive use water right at YNP shall include any non-reserved land within YNP as the boundaries exist on the effective date of this Compact.

TABLE 8 United States National Park Service Yellowstone National Park Consumptive Use

Place of UseTotalMaximum
VolumeFlow Rate
(ac-ft)(gpm)
Yellowstone River Basin
North Entrance1.7035
Stephens Creek facilities12.0050
TW facilities (Gardiner)58.70300
NE Entrance15.6050
Backcountry Use10.70
Backcountry Patrol Cabins2.0015
Day Use Areas2.406
Gallatin River Basin
NW Entrance Area15.0050
Backcountry Use2.80
Backcountry Patrol Cabins0.5010
Day Use Areas0.606
Madison River Basin
West Entrance48.90200
Backcountry Use2.80
Backcountry Patrol Cabins0.5010
Day Use Areas0.706
YNP TOTAL174.90

      3. Instream Flow Right
      a. Category 1:
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as "Category 1:"
      Black Bear Canyon, Black Butte, Blacktail Deer, Cougar, Daly, Duck, Fan, Grayling, Landslide, Mol Heron, Pebble, Specimen, Stephens, Upper Reese, and Wickiup Creeks, and the Gardner River.
      ii. Instream Flow:
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the Category 1 streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact. This reserved water right ends at the most downstream point that the stream exits the reserved land of YNP.
      b. Category 2:
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as "Category 2:"
      Bacon Rind, Buffalo, Cottonwood, Coyote, Hellroaring, Little Cottonwood, and Snowslide Creeks.
      ii. Instream Flow
      The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on the Category 2 streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any consumptive use rights of an agency of the United States recognized under federal or state law. This reserved water right ends at the most downstream point that the stream exits the reserved land of YNP.
      iii. Change in Wilderness Designation
      In the event that the Congress of the United States repeals the Wilderness designation assigned to the headwaters of an above named Category 2 stream, then, to the extent consistent with the law repealing the Wilderness designation as it pertains to water use, the stream headwatered in the former Wilderness may be reclassified in the appropriate category on request by the state.
      c. Category 3:
      i. Identification:
      The following streams are designated as "Category 3:"
      Crevice, Dry Canyon, Slough, and Tepee Creeks.
      ii. The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on Category 3 streams in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact, provided that, the instream flow right is subordinate to (1) the sum of all water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, plus any future consumptive use rights calculated according to Article II, until the limit on total current and future consumptive use set forth in Table 9 is reached; (2) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (3) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II.

TABLE 9 State Law Based Total Current and Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of Category 3 Streams

MonthCreviceDry CanyonSloughTepee
CreekCreekCreekCreek
Jan.0.20.11.50.3
Feb.0.20.11.60.3
Mar.0.30.11.90.4
April1.10.25.61.2
May3.81.319.84.5
June3.41.222.45.3
July1.00.37.31.7
Aug.0.40.22.90.8
Sept.0.40.12.30.6
Oct.0.40.12.40.6
Nov.0.30.12.10.5
Dec.0.20.11.80.4

      iii. The provisions of Article III, section G.3.c.ii notwithstanding, in the event of a period of low flow such that Crevice, Dry Canyon, Slough, or Tepee Creeks fall below the critical levels of instream flow shown in Table 10 at the point the stream enters the reserved land of YNP, the United States' water right for instream flow is not subordinate to consumptive use water rights recognized under state law with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993.

TABLE 10 Low Stream Flow Levels at which Subordination is Limited (cfs)

MonthCreviceDry CanyonSloughTepee
CreekCreekCreekCreek
Jan.3.81.128.96.5
Feb.4.51.030.66.5
Mar.5.21.235.47.7
April20.24.7106.423.7
May71.824.0376.284.6
June63.822.9425.6100.1
July18.76.6138.733.2
Aug.8.13.155.214.9
Sept.7.02.044.210.9
Oct.7.11.946.010.8
Nov.5.21.539.59.1
Dec.3.91.434.18.1

      d. Category 4:
      The following streams are designated as Category 4: Soda Butte Creek within the state, and the Gallatin, Madison and Yellowstone Rivers where they flow within or form the boundary to reserved land of YNP within the state.
      i. Soda Butte Creek
     (1) The United States has a reserved water right for instream flow on Soda Butte Creek in the amount of the entire flow of the stream, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact, provided that, the instream flow right is subordinate to: (a) any water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993; (b) any future consumptive use rights calculated according to Article II, as long as the limit on total current and future consumptive use set forth in Table 11 has not already been reached or exceeded by the rights protected under subsection (1)(a); (c) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (d) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II.

TABLE 11 State Law Based Total Current and Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of Soda Butte Creek

MonthFlow
Jan. 0.3
Feb. 0.3
Mar. 0.2
April 0.1
May 6.2
June17.5
July 6.4
Aug. 2.4
Sept. 0.8
Oct. 0.7
Nov. 0.5
Dec. 0.3

      (2) The provisions of Article III, section G.3.d.i.(1) notwithstanding, in the event of a period of low flow such that Soda Butte Creek falls below the critical levels of instream flow shown in Table 12 at the point the stream enters the reserved land of YNP, the United States' water right for instream flow shall be subordinate only to: (a) any water right for domestic use of 35 gpm or less and to any water right held by an incorporated or unincorporated municipality, recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993; (b) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (c) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II.
     (3) In the event that the Congress of the United States repeals the Wilderness designation assigned to the land over which Republic and Hayden Creeks and two unnamed tributaries to Soda Butte Creek flow in Wyoming, or otherwise makes water from such tributaries available for appropriation in Wyoming, the state may seek modification of Article III, section G.3.d.i.(2). of this Compact as provided in Article VI, section A.2.

TABLE 12 Low Stream Flow Levels at which Subordination is Limited (cfs) Soda Butte Creek

MonthFlow
Jan. 5.4
Feb. 5.1
Mar. 4.0
April 1.7
May116.9
June332.5
July120.7
Aug. 46.4
Sept. 15.3
Oct. 14.2
Nov. 9.3
Dec. 6.3

      ii. The Gallatin, Madison and Yellowstone Rivers
      The United States has a water right for instream flow on the Gallatin, Madison and Yellowstone Rivers in the amount of the entire flow of the streams, less any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact, provided that, the right is subordinate to: (1) the sum of all water rights recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, plus any future consumptive use rights calculated according to Article II, until the limit on total current and future consumptive use rights set forth in Table 13 is reached; (2) any use considered non-consumptive as defined by this Compact; and (3) any use of groundwater not included in the calculation of consumptive use according to Article II.

TABLE 13 State Law Based Total Current and Future Consumptive Use Rights (cfs) Tributary to the Reserved Portion of these Rivers

GallatinMadisonYellowstone
MonthRiverRiverRiver
Jan.3.119.941.2
Feb.3.119.740.6
Mar.3.520.044.5
April9.824.373.7
May39.340.9284.7
June48.040.2556.7
July15.724.7335.0
Aug.5.821.4156.5
Sept.4.421.196.0
Oct.4.621.475.0
Nov.4.221.058.4
Dec.3.820.447.2

      4. Hot Springs tributary to Bear Creek and the Yellowstone River
      The hot springs that contribute to Bear Creek outside the boundaries of YNP are important to maintenance of biologic values of reserved water in the Yellowstone River downstream from the confluence with Bear Creek. As part of the settlement of the reserved water right for YNP, the state agrees to grant the United States a water right under state law to all of the natural flow of the Bear Creek hot springs located at the mouth of Bear Creek in S1/2 S1/2, sec. 19, T9S, R9E, Montana Principle Meridian. The priority date is the effective date of this Compact.
      5. Lakes
      The United States has a reserved water right for the maintenance of natural water levels in all naturally occurring lakes within the boundaries of YNP for the purpose of preserving unimpaired these Park resources. The water right for the maintenance of lake levels is subordinate to (1) any United States' consumptive use rights described in this Compact; and (2) any water right recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993. The named and unnamed lakes in which the United States has a reserved water right are those set forth more specifically in the Abstract.
      H. Emergency Fire Suppression
      The use of water for emergency fire suppression benefits the public, and is necessary for the purposes of the various Park reservations. The United States, may as part of its reserved water right, divert water for fire suppression at all of the National Park Service Units as needed, and without a definition of the specific elements of a recordable water right. Use of water for fire suppression shall not be deemed an exercise of the United States' reserved water rights for consumptive use or a violation of its reserved water rights for instream flow.

ARTICLE IV YELLOWSTONE CONTROLLED GROUNDWATER AREA


      A. Statement of Intent
      Yellowstone National Park was reserved for the express purpose of "preservation, from injury or spoliation, of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition." 17 Stat. 32. The parties agree that Congress reserved water necessary to preserve the hydrothermal features within the reserved land of YNP. These reserved water rights have priorities as of the date on which the land was reserved.
      The parties understand that knowledge of the interrelationship of hydrothermal features within YNP, the hydrothermal system that supports those features, and groundwater in surrounding areas of Montana will benefit from increased study. The parties agree that the hydrothermal features of YNP are a unique and irreplaceable resource and represent one of the few undisturbed hydrothermal systems in the United States.
      This Compact does not recognize a reserved water right to groundwater outside the boundaries of the reserved land of YNP. However, the parties agree that restrictions shall be placed on the development of groundwater adjacent to YNP to the extent necessary to prevent adverse effect on the reserved water right to groundwater within YNP. The parties agree that the goal of establishment and administration of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area shall be to allow no impact to the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP.
      B. Findings
      Ratification of this Compact by the Montana legislature constitutes a finding that:
      1. unrestricted use of groundwater adjacent to Yellowstone National Park is likely to interfere with the water rights reserved by the United States in 1872, 1929, 1930, and 1932, for the preservation of hydrothermal features within YNP;
      2. prevention of adverse effect on the United States' reserved water right to groundwater within the reserved land of YNP is a benefit to the state and to the United States;
      3. the public interest and welfare requires that a corrective control be adopted to regulate groundwater development adjacent to YNP; and
      4. the cooperative state-federal management and oversight established by this Article is an effective means to achieve protection of the reserved water right to groundwater necessary to preserve the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP.
      C. General Provisions
      1. Establishment: The Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area or "Area" is hereby established and shall be defined and administered according to this Compact.
      2. Funding: The United States agrees that it receives substantial benefit from the establishment and administration of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area, and that the national and international public benefit extends far beyond the boundaries of the state. Thus, the United States agrees that the relatively small population of the state should not bear the entire cost of protection of the United States' reserved water right. To this end, the Department of the Interior agrees, subject to appropriations by Congress, to reimburse the state for the expense of establishment, administration and enforcement of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area by the Department; to fund the inventory, sampling, reporting and database management by the Bureau; and, except as provided in Article IV, section J.1.c., to fund the administrative costs and the cost of any study or any other necessary activity pursuant to this Article by the Technical Oversight Committee.
      3. Implementation Contingent on Funds: Such funding shall be accomplished pursuant to the terms and conditions of a separate agreement which shall incorporate terms and conditions necessary to specify the activities to be funded and appropriate cost and accounting principles consistent with generally applicable guidelines for federal funding in similar circumstances, and consistent with the terms of this Compact, including, but not limited to, the enumeration of state expenses to be reimbursed in Article IV, section C.2. The state is relieved of its obligation to establish, administer, inventory, sample and maintain a database on the Controlled Groundwater Area in the absence of a funding agreement and the provision of the funds specified therein. If the state is relieved of its obligation to implement all or a portion of this Article, all other terms of this Compact shall remain in effect, including all reserved water rights established herein. Such agreement may be amended, extended, renewed or terminated pursuant to its terms.
      4. Interim Measures:
      The state agrees that the following interim measures shall apply from the effective date of this Compact until the receipt of funds from the United States or December 31, 1995, whichever occurs first. The United States agrees to reimburse the state for the cost of the interim measures, subject to the appropriation of funds by Congress. The parties agree that, even if funding is not received by December 31, 1995 and interim measures are suspended, the state and the Department of the Interior will continue to recommend federal funding.
      a. The Department shall issue the notice required by Article IV, section F.
      b. All permits issued within this time period within the Area shall be conditioned on appropriation of water of less than 60< F., measured at the wellhead.
      c. The Department shall require that each applicant for a permit or person filing a notice of completion for issuance of a certificate of water right to appropriate groundwater within the Area report the following information on filing of a well log: (1) well location to the quarter-quarter-quarter-quarter section; (2) ground elevation at the wellhead; (3) well depth; (4) water level; (5) flow rate or maximum pump capacity; and (6) water temperature measured at the wellhead.
      d. The Department shall not issue a certificate of water right for the appropriation of groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more within the Area during this time period. The Department shall order temporary abandonment of any well in the Area for which a conditional permit was issued or notice of completion for issuance of a certificate of water right was filed within this time period that produces groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more, measured at the wellhead. Temporary abandonment shall be according to the rules of the Montana Board of Water Well Contractors.
      e. Following receipt of funds from the United States, the Department shall notify the applicant that the appropriation is subject to the terms of this Compact and shall proceed according to the procedures set forth in this Article. If funds are not received by December 31, 1995, the Department may remove the order of temporary abandonment and remove the condition on the permit or issue the certificate of water right pursuant to state law. The Department shall continue to require that each applicant for a permit or certificate of water right to appropriate groundwater within the Area report the following information on filing of a well log: (1) well location to the quarter-quarter-quarter-quarter section; (2) ground elevation at the wellhead; (3) well depth; (4) water level; (5) flow rate or maximum pump capacity; and (6) water temperature measured at the wellhead.
      5. Additional Studies: In addition to appropriations necessary to implement this Article, the state and the National Park Service agree to recommend federal funding for a baseline study of hydrothermal features in YNP and within the Controlled Groundwater Area, for continued monitoring of these features, and for geologic and geophysical studies including, but not limited to, geologic mapping, and monitoring of microearthquakes and subsidence in and adjacent to YNP. Implementation of this Article is not contingent on such appropriation.
      6. Access for Studies: Consistent with the purposes of YNP, the United States agrees to allow reasonable access to and across YNP to the extent necessary to accomplish the data collection authorized by this Article or additional studies recommended pursuant to Article IV, section C.5. In seeking access, the Department or Bureau shall comply with the provisions of Article II, section I.3.
      7. Effect of Modification of Area: It is the intent of the parties that the initial boundaries of the Area set forth in Article IV, section D. and Appendix 3, and initial restrictions set forth in Article IV, section E. may be modified pursuant to Article IV, section J., or with respect to a single appropriation pursuant to Article IV, section G.2.c. and shall not be deemed to be a modification of this Compact. Any other modification of this Article shall be considered a modification of this Compact and is subject to the terms of Article VI, section A.2.
      8. It is the intention of the Department of the Interior to protect the hydrothermal resources of Yellowstone National Park through the system established by Article IV.
      a. The National Park Service agrees, consistent with 43 U.S.C. § 666, that enforcement will not be sought against the holder of a water right recognized under state law with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993, unless the NPS has, in the first instance, sought enforcement through the state under the terms of this Compact.
      b. Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, if the National Park Service, in its judgment, determines that circumstances warrant, nothing in this Compact prohibits the United States from petitioning a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction for injunctive or declarative relief. Nothing in this Compact shall alter the courts' application of the test for injunctive relief; neither shall the administrative determination by the National Park Service to seek relief in said court be deemed to establish or preclude any determination in such judicial proceedings. Prior to such an administrative determination, the National Park Service agrees that it will provide the State written notice and will identify a time frame during which it will await the State's efforts to address the concern.
      c. As to an action against the holder of a right to withdraw groundwater recognized under state law with a priority date before January 1, 1993, the United States agrees that this Compact shall not be used or relied upon as evidence to show that: (1) a reserved water right of the United States exists appurtenant to any land other than the reserved land of YNP; or (2) the priority date associated with any portion of reserved land of YNP is other than the date on which that portion of land was actually reserved.
      D. Initial Boundaries of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area
      The initial boundaries of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area and Subareas are defined to include the area in the State of Montana located within the geographic boundaries shown on Appendix 3. Appendix 3 is hereby incorporated in this Compact by this reference as though set forth here in full.
      1. Subarea I:
      The initial geographic boundaries of the subarea referred to as Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Subarea I shall include all of the area in Montana North and West of YNP within the boundary delineated as subarea I on Appendix 3.
      2. Subarea II:
      The initial geographic boundaries of the subarea referred to as Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Subarea II shall include all the area in Montana North and West of YNP within the boundary delineated as subarea II on Appendix 3.
      E. Initial Restrictions on Groundwater Development within the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area
      Until the initial boundaries or restrictions set forth in this Article are modified pursuant to Article IV, section J., the restrictions set forth in this section shall apply to groundwater appropriations within the Area with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993. Such appropriations shall follow the procedural requirements of Article IV, section G.
      1. The parties agree that the initial restrictions on development of groundwater and any modification thereof, shall not apply to appropriations with a priority date before January 1, 1993. The sole provisions of this Article applicable to such appropriations shall be those providing for inventory and sampling of current use set forth in Article IV, section H. Groundwater appropriations with a priority date before January 1, 1993 are subject to applicable state law including, but not limited to, issuance of a certificate of water right following final adjudication of existing water rights. Nothing herein waives the right of the United States to seek protection of its reserved water right for protection of the hydrothermal features within the reserved land of YNP from groundwater appropriations with a priority date before January 1, 1993 in a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction, provided that the limitation on use of this Compact in an action by the United States against any such appropriator set forth in Article IV, section C.8.c. shall apply.
      2. The Department shall not issue a permit to appropriate groundwater that is hydrothermal discharge water as defined by this Compact unless either: (1) modification occurs pursuant to Article IV, section J. altering pertinent boundaries or restrictions; or (2) an application is approved pursuant to Article IV, section G.2.c. Unless modification occurs pursuant to Article IV, section J., the Department shall not limit an appropriation of groundwater that is not hydrothermal discharge water unless required to do so by Article II and III of this Compact or any other provision of state law.
      F. General Notice of Establishment of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area
      1. Notice: Within 120 days after the effective date of this Compact and within 60 days of any decision by the Department to modify the Area as set forth in Article IV, section J., the Department shall publish a notice of establishment or modification of the Area setting forth:
      a. the description by legal subdivisions of all lands included in the controlled groundwater area;
      b. the purpose of the controlled groundwater area or modification; and
      c. the permit requirements, restrictions, inventory, sampling and monitoring applicable within each subarea.
      2. Publication and Service: Such notice shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or counties in which the Area is located. The Department shall also serve a copy of the notice by mail on each well driller licensed in Montana whose address is within any county in which any part of the Area is located; on each well driller known by the Department to operate in the Area; on the Montana State Bureau of Mines and Geology; on the mayor or chair of the governing body of each county or incorporated municipality located in whole or in part within the Area; and on the United States. The Department may also serve notice on any other person or state or federal agency that the Department believes may be interested in or affected by the proposed designation or modification of the Area. A copy of the notice shall be mailed to each person's last known address according to the records of the Department.
      G. Appropriations of Groundwater within the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area With a Priority Date on or After January 1, 1993
      1. Appropriation of Groundwater within the Area with a Priority Date on or after January 1, 1993 and before the Effective Date of this Compact:
      The initial restrictions on groundwater development set forth in Article IV, section E. apply to appropriations of groundwater with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993 and before the effective date of this Compact provided that the following procedural requirements are met:
      a. Within 120 days after the effective date of this Compact or the receipt of adequate funds from Congress, whichever occurs later, the Department shall provide the United States with notice of all groundwater appropriations within the Area that, according to the records of the Department, have a priority date on or after January 1, 1993 and before the effective date of this Compact.
      b. Subsequent to the notice provided for in Article IV, section G.1.a. and up to 120 days following mailing of the report on inventory provided in Article IV, section H.1.b.iii., the United States may provide the Department with credible information on any groundwater appropriation within the Area with a priority date on or after January 1, 1993 and before the effective date of this Compact, showing that the appropriation is of water with a temperature of 60< F. or more.
      c. If the United States provides the information set forth in Article IV, section G.1.b., the Department shall, within 60 days of receipt of the information, issue an order requiring that the appropriator comply with the applicable restrictions. The order is effective within 60 days of issuance unless the appropriator enters an appearance to contest the order.
      d. If the appropriator enters an appearance to contest the order, the Department shall: (1) issue an order staying use of the appropriation pending final decision on the matter by the Department; (2) set a date for a hearing; and (3) proceed pursuant to the provisions for a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4 of the Montana Code Annotated, provided that in such a proceeding the United States has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the appropriation is of groundwater of 60< F or more. If the United States meets this burden, the appropriator shall comply with procedures and restrictions set forth in Article IV, section G.2.
      2. Appropriations of Groundwater with a Priority Date after the Effective Date of this Compact
      a. General Provisions
      i. All groundwater appropriations within the Area after the effective date of this Compact are subject to this Article. Applications and registration for a permit for the appropriation of groundwater within the Area after the effective date of this Compact shall include a statement of whether the proposed use requires water with temperature of 60< F. or more. In addition, the Department shall not issue a permit for appropriation of groundwater unless the requirements of Articles II and III are met, if applicable.
      ii. A permit issued pursuant to this Article shall provide that:
     (1) The permittee shall install a device to meter total volume of water use in compliance with rules promulgated by the Department pursuant to Article IV, section I.5. The Department shall specify the metering method and location of installation. On or before January 15 of each year, the permittee shall report annual use to the Bureau at: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Main Hall, Montana Tech, Butte MT, 59701. Meters shall be made available to the permittee at the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Regional Water Rights Office at: 111 North Tracy, Bozeman, Montana, 59715. Meters shall be acquired for distribution by the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Regional Water Rights Office as part of the inventory and sampling program authorized by Article IV, section I.
     (2) The Department has the authority to modify or revoke a permit if the provisions listed below are applicable, and all other administrative or judicial enforcement authority provided under Title 85, part 2, of the Montana Code Annotated applies to this part. The Department may exercise its enforcement authority if (1) the appropriator fails to allow access for sampling provided for in Article IV, section H.; (2) the character of the groundwater produced changes such that a restriction applies pursuant to this Article; (3) new restrictions imposed pursuant to Article IV, section J. are applicable; or (4) the appropriator violates any other provision of this part.
     (3) A permit to appropriate hydrothermal discharge water may include limits and conditions on appropriation including but not limited to (a) limits on total withdrawal by day, month or year; (b) a requirement to adhere to a system of rotation of use within the Area; and (c) a provision adjusting the total withdrawal from two or more wells in the area used by the same appropriator.
     (4) A permit to appropriate hydrothermal discharge water shall include any applicable monitoring requirement recommended by the Working Group Report or recommendations by the TOC superseding that report unless the applicant shows by clear and convincing evidence that such monitoring is inappropriate.
      iii. If, subsequent to the effective date of this Compact, modification pursuant to Article IV, section J. removes the restrictions set forth in Article IV, section E., the monitoring recommended by the Working Group Report or as superseded by the TOC shall continue to apply unless the applicant shows by clear and convincing evidence that such monitoring is inappropriate, according to the criteria in the Working Group Report or as superseded by the TOC.
      b. Appropriations of Groundwater with a Temperature of less than 60< F
      i. Registration and Application
     (1) An applicant for an appropriation of groundwater of 35 gpm or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year shall register for a permit by filing a form prescribed by the Department that shall include, but not be limited to, a statement of whether the proposed use requires water with temperature of 60< F. or more, the well location, and intended use and shall comply with the provisions of Article II and III, if applicable. The Department shall provide notice of the registration for a permit to the United States within 30 days of the filing.
     (2) An applicant for a permit to appropriate groundwater of greater than 35 gpm or 10 acre-feet per year after the effective date of this Compact, shall comply with existing state law for permits to appropriate water and the limits on groundwater appropriations set forth in Articles II and III, if applicable. The Department may issue an interim permit for the proposed appropriation to an applicant seeking an appropriation for a use that does not require water with a temperature of 60< F. or more if the requirements of this section are met.
      ii. Drilling
     (1) On filing a proper registration form, an applicant for an appropriation of 35 gpm or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, with a proposed use that does not require water with a temperature of 60< F. or more may complete the proposed well subject to state law and the terms of this Compact, but shall not put the water to beneficial use until issuance of a permit.
     (2) Upon issuance of an interim permit, an applicant for an appropriation of greater than 35 gpm or 10 acre-feet per year may drill the well subject to state law and the terms of this Compact, but shall not put the water to beneficial use until issuance of a permit.
      iii. Within 60 days of drilling of the well, the applicant or registrant shall provide the Department with a well log on a form provided by the Department. The well log shall include well location to the quarter-quarter-quarter-quarter section; ground elevation at the wellhead; well depth; water level; flow rate or maximum pump rate; water temperature measured at the wellhead; and specific conductance of the water produced using a device provided by the Water Resources Regional Office.
      iv. The Department shall forward a copy of the well log to the United States and to the Bureau on receipt.
      v. Following receipt of the well log, the Department may inspect the well at a reasonable hour of the day to verify the information on the well log report. The United States may request to accompany the inspector as set forth in Article II, section I.4.
      vi. The United States has 60 days from the mailing of the report to file an objection setting forth credible information that the appropriation is of groundwater with characteristics to which restrictions established pursuant to this Article apply.
      vii. The Department may issue a permit to appropriate if: (1) the well log and any verification confirm that the appropriation is of water to which no restrictions pursuant to this Article apply; and (2) all other requirements of state law and this Compact have been met, unless the United States files an objection pursuant to Article IV, section G.2.b.vi. If the well log or verification indicate appropriation of water to which restrictions pursuant to this Article apply or if the United States files a proper objection, the applicant shall be subject to the provisions of Article IV, section G.2.c.
      viii. If a permit is issued, the applicant or registrant may complete the appropriation and apply the water to beneficial use.
      ix. Within 60 days of completion of the appropriation, the permittee shall file a notice of completion with the Department pursuant to state law.
      c. Appropriation of Groundwater with a Temperature of 60< F. or Greater
      If an application or registration for a permit within the Area is for a use requiring groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more or the well log or any verification indicates water of 60< F. or more, the following provisions apply:
      i. Subarea I - groundwater with a temperature of 85< F. or more:
      Groundwater of 85< F. or more in Subarea I is presumed to be hydrothermal discharge water. The Department shall not process or grant an application for a permit to appropriate water with a temperature of 85< F. or more in Subarea I, unless the appropriation is consistent with modification of restrictions pursuant to Article IV, section J., or pursuant to the procedures set forth below. An application for an appropriation that proposes to do no more than divert the unenhanced natural surface flow of a spring that is not located in the mainstem of the reserved portion of a stream to which a reserved water right for instream flow is described in Article III of this Compact is not subject to these restrictions.
     (1) The application shall set forth credible information that the proposed appropriation does not include contribution by hydrothermal discharge water;
     (2) Within 30 days of receipt of the information the Department shall seek review of the application by the TOC.
     (3) The TOC shall review the report to determine if the appropriation can take place without adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within YNP. In performing the review, the TOC shall utilize the best available scientific information. The TOC shall resolve doubt in favor of protection of the hydrothermal system within YNP.
     (4) Within 60 days of the request by the Department, the TOC shall recommend, in a report to the Department, if, and under what conditions the appropriation could be allowed without adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within YNP. The TOC may recommend limits or conditions on the proposed appropriation that, in the opinion of the TOC, would allow the development while protecting the hydrothermal system within YNP. The TOC shall also provide the Department with a dissenting report pursuant to Article IV, section J.1., if applicable.
     (5) On receipt of the report or reports, the Department shall provide a copy to the United States and the applicant and shall schedule a hearing no less than 60 and no more than 90 days from mailing of the report.
     (6) The hearing shall proceed as a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedure Act, Title 2, Chapter 4 of the Montana Code Annotated.
     (7) The report or reports, data and other written information produced by the TOC shall be admissible in the hearing without further foundation and not subject to the hearsay objection, subject to the rights of any party or claimant to cross-examine the producer or drafter of the written material and to controvert the same by other evidence. The hearing officer may request that members of the TOC appear to provide expert testimony in the case.
     (8) The report and recommendations provided by the TOC have a rebuttable presumption of validity for the purposes of Article IV. The dissenting report, if any, may be used as rebuttal evidence.
     (9) If the report recommends denial of the application, the applicant may overcome the presumption by proving by clear and convincing evidence that the proposed appropriation does not include hydrothermal discharge water.
     (10) If the application is denied, the Department shall order that the well be temporarily abandoned; or, if multiple water zones are encountered, the zone of excess temperature be closed to production. Abandonment shall be according to the rules of the Montana Board of Water Well Contractors unless alternative procedures are recommended by the TOC. The abandonment order shall not be lifted until a modification order pursuant to Section IV.J. allows the appropriation or until the department determines that the well should be permanently abandoned.
     (11) Within 30 days of an order by the Department pursuant to this section, appeal on the record may be made to a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction. For an appeal to state court, venue shall be the First Judicial District in Helena and the review must be conducted according to the procedures for judicial review of a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated.
      ii. Subarea I - groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more, but less than 85< F:
      Appropriation of groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more, but less than 85< F. in subarea I is subject to the following provisions.
     (1) The applicant shall provide credible information that the water meets the following criteria:
     (a) the proposed appropriation will do no more than divert the unenhanced natural surface flow of a spring that is not located in the mainstem of the reserved portion of a stream to which a reserved water right for instream flow is described in Article III of this Compact, or
     (b) the proposed appropriation meets all of the following criteria:
     (i) The water temperature is the result of the normal thermal gradient of the earth plus the mean annual air temperature at the site plus 14< F. Unless modified by the TOC, the Department shall use the following equation to estimate the water temperature expected:
      (0.01646 x the depth of the production zone in feet) + 59.3< F.
      If the temperature measured at the wellhead is equal to or less than the temperature estimated by this equation, the appropriation meets this criteria.
     (ii) the concentration of soluble chloride is less than ten parts per million; and
     (iii) the well does not contain a production zone completed within the Madison Group of formations as defined by the Catalog of Stratigraphic Names for Montana, Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication 54, March 1971.
     (2) The Department may issue a permit to appropriate groundwater with a temperature of 60< F or more, but less than 85< F. to an applicant that meets the above criteria and is in compliance with the provisions of Article IV, section G.2.c. unless (a) restrictions are consistent with modification pursuant to Article IV, section J.; or (b) the United States objects and shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the criteria have not been met or, for another scientific reason, the temperature is the result of contribution by hydrothermal discharge water.
     (3) If the applicant fails to meet the above criteria or the United States meets its burden, the applicant shall comply with the provisions of Article IV, section G.2.c.i. for water or 85< F or more.
     (4) The three criteria set forth in Article IV, section G.2.c.ii.(1)(b) may be modified on recommendation by the TOC.
      iii. Subarea II:
     (1) Groundwater of 85< F. or more in subarea II is presumed to be hydrothermal discharge water. The applicant shall follow the procedures of Article IV, section G.2.c.i. including review by the TOC, provided that, if a permit to appropriate is issued the monitoring recommended in the Working Group Report or as superseded by the TOC for subarea II, not subarea I, shall apply.
     (2) An applicant who encounters groundwater of 60< F. or more but less than 85< F. shall comply with the provisions of Article IV, section G.2.c.ii., provided that, if a permit to appropriate is issued the monitoring recommended in the Working Group Report or as superseded by the TOC for subarea II, not subarea I, shall apply.
      3. Change in Character of Groundwater: Within 60 days of the receipt of information indicating a change in the character of the groundwater appropriated under a permit issued in the Area on or after January 1, 1993 that indicates the production of groundwater for which a restriction applies, the Department shall issue an order requiring that the appropriator comply with the limitations on appropriation of hydrothermal groundwater authorized in this Article. The order shall take affect 60 days following the date issued unless the appropriator appears to contest the order. If the appropriator appears to contest the order, the Department shall set a date for a hearing and proceed pursuant to the provisions for a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated, provided that the appropriator shall have the burden to prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the water produced does not meet the criteria to which restrictions apply.
      H. Inventory and Sampling of Groundwater
      1. Initial Inventory
      All groundwater appropriations in the Area with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact shall be inventoried as set forth below:
      a. Notice of Inventory
      Within 120 days after the effective date of this Compact or the receipt of funding from the United States, whichever occurs later, the Department shall serve notice by mail on each person or public agency known from an examination of the records in the Department's office to be an appropriator of groundwater with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact. The notice shall set forth:
      i. the contents of the notice required in Article IV, section F.; and
      ii. a statement that within 3 years from the date of notice the Bureau may visit the wellsite to measure temperature; flow rate or maximum pump capacity; water level, or pump level if the well cannot be entered; and may collect a water sample for additional analysis.
      b. Inventory
      i. Within 3 years of notice pursuant to Article IV, section H.1.a., a representative of the Bureau shall inventory each well drilled pursuant to an appropriation recognized under state law with a priority date before the effective date of this Compact. The inventory shall be considered complete when the Bureau has inventoried substantially all of the wells that can be located and accessed with reasonable diligence. The inventory shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
     (1) well location to the quarter-quarter-quarter-quarter section;
     (2) ground elevation at the wellhead;
     (3) flow rate or maximum pump capacity;
     (4) water level, or pump level if the well cannot be entered;
     (5) water temperature at the wellhead;
     (6) specific conductance of the water at the wellhead;
     (7) chloride content of the water at the wellhead;
     (8) water samples from a representative number of wells selected by the Bureau. The water samples shall be analyzed by the Bureau, or by a qualified lab contracted by the Bureau. Samples shall be analyzed for chemistry, and, if applicable, gas and isotopes. Choice of analyses shall be at the discretion of the Bureau using the Working Group Report or a report by the TOC superseding the Working Group Report as a guideline. The Bureau may consult with the TOC concerning well selection and analysis; and,
     (9) any additional information deemed necessary for implementation of this Article by the Bureau in consultation with the TOC.
      ii. The inventory shall be prioritized to complete Subarea I first.
      iii. Within 6 months of completion of the inventory in each Subarea, the Bureau shall provide a report to the Department, the TOC, and the United States, verifying that the inventory is complete and setting forth the data obtained in the inventory. The report shall be made available to the public by the Department. In addition, the Bureau shall maintain an adequate database pursuant to Article IV, section H.2.
      2. Sampling Program and Database
      a. Following the initial inventory of all current groundwater appropriations in the Area provided for in Article VI, section H.1., the Bureau shall sample wells selected in consultation with the TOC and at a frequency determined in consultation with the TOC. The wells may include appropriations made prior to, on or after January 1, 1993. The number of wells sampled and the analyses performed shall be as determined by the Bureau in consultation with the TOC. Until superseded due to recommendation by the TOC, the Working Group Report shall be used as a guideline in making this determination. Within 6 months of the completion of each inventory and sampling program, the Bureau shall provide the Department, the TOC and the United States with a report on the results.
      b. The Bureau shall maintain an adequate database on the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area which shall include, at a minimum, analyses of water chemistry, temperature, well depth, well capacity and well location.
      c. The United States agrees to provide an annual report to the Bureau for incorporation into the database on the water chemistry, temperature and flow rate of any well in use or spring sampled in the portion of YNP within the state, and may include such information for any well or spring in the portion of YNP outside the state.
      d. The information in the database shall be available to the public through the Natural Resources Information System, currently located at 1515 E. Sixth Avenue, Helena, Montana 59620-1800.
      I. Administration of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area
      1. The Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area established by this Compact shall be administered pursuant to applicable state law and the terms of this Compact.
      2. In addition to the requirements imposed by state law, the Department shall provide the United States with notice of any application or registration for a permit to appropriate groundwater within the Area in the same manner and time as required by state law for notice to groundwater appropriators in a controlled groundwater area.
      3. The United States may be an objector to any application or registration for a permit to appropriate groundwater or in a hearing for modification of a permit to appropriate groundwater within the Area pursuant to the provisions of Article IV, section G.
      4. The Department shall, whenever possible, consolidate any proceedings on groundwater applications or registration pursuant to Articles II and III with any proceeding made necessary by this Article.
      5. Within 2 years after the effective date of this Compact or the receipt of the requested funding from the United States, whichever occurs later, the Department is directed to promulgate such additional rules necessary to effectuate this Compact and to establish criteria which may be necessary to implement this Article. Said rules shall not alter the rights or obligations of the parties hereto. In doing so, the Department shall consult with the United States and the TOC. Until modified by the TOC, the Department shall adopt the Working Group Report to govern sampling, reporting and monitoring requirements, except as modified by Article IV, section G. In reviewing any permit to appropriate hydrothermal discharge water the Department shall consider the criteria set forth in the Working Group Report or a subsequent report by the TOC, including, but not limited to, the identification of risk associated with volume of appropriation and distance from the reserved land of YNP.
      J. Modification of the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area
      1. Technical Oversight Committee: Establishment and Authority
      a. A joint federal-state Technical Oversight Committee is hereby established to review scientific evidence related to the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area; to advise the Department on administration of the Area, including review of applications to appropriate water of 60< F. or more; to consult with the Bureau on inventory and sampling; and to recommend modification of boundaries and restrictions.
      b. The committee shall consist of five qualified scientists with experience related to hydrothermal systems. The committee members shall be appointed within six months following the effective date of this Compact: one appointed by the National Park Service; one appointed by the United States Geological Survey; one appointed by the Department; one appointed from the Montana University system by the Montana State Geologist; and one selected by the other four members. Appointments and selections shall be made, to the extent possible, to ensure that three of the qualified scientists with experience related to hydrothermal systems also have experience in (1) geochemistry; (2) geophysics; and (3) hydrogeology. Vacancies due to expiration of terms or resignation of a member shall be filled in the same manner. Should the four members fail to agree on the selection of additional members within 60 days after appointment of all four members or within 30 days after a vacancy occurs, the following procedure shall be utilized:
     (i) Within 5 days each member shall nominate one person for each vacancy and submit the nominations to a judge of the First Judicial District in Helena; and
     (ii) A judge of the First Judicial District in Helena shall fill the vacancy by selecting a member from each set of nominations.
      c. Each member shall serve a five-year term and shall be eligible for reappointment. Expenses of the members shall be born by the entity appointing the member. The per diem or salary, and travel expenses of the three members-at-large shall be born equally by the United States and the state, subject to the availability of funds. All other expenses of the TOC shall be born by the United States subject to Congressional appropriation as set forth in Article IV, section C.
      d. The recommendation of any of the following by the TOC shall be based on a supermajority of four to one: (1) modification of the Area pursuant to Article IV, section J; (2) review of an application to appropriate groundwater with a temperature of 60< F. or more; and (3) removal of any of the criteria specified in Article IV, section G.[2.]c.ii.(1)(b). Failure to achieve a supermajority shall result in a recommendation of no modification or no permit approval. In the absence of a unanimous decision, the TOC shall provide both a report supporting the recommendation that there be no modification or no permit approval, and a dissenting report to the Department. In all other instances in which the TOC consults with or makes recommendations to the Department or the Bureau, recommendations shall be made by a simple majority of the entire committee.
      e. The TOC shall:
      i. review the boundaries of the Area and the Subareas;
      ii. review the initial restrictions on groundwater development imposed pursuant to this Article, and future modifications of those restrictions;
      iii. assess the cumulative impact of all development in the Area;
      iv. review changes in the groundwater and hydrothermal systems revealed by inventory and analyses done by the Bureau, and any other pertinent scientific evidence;
      v. review new scientific evidence pertinent to the Area;
      vi. consult with the Bureau or the Department on request;
      vii. present evidence and make recommendations to the Department in accordance with Article IV, section J.2.
      viii. review applications for a permit to appropriate groundwater on request by the Department as set forth in Article IV, section G.2.c.; and
      ix. take any additional action necessary to implement this Article.
      f. The Department and the Bureau shall provide the TOC with all information in their records regarding appropriations of groundwater within the Area including reports required by this Article.
      g. The initial review shall take place within 1 year of the receipt of the inventory report done by the Bureau pursuant to Article IV, section H. Subsequent reviews shall take place every 5 years following the initial inventory or following the issuance of 75 permits to appropriate water within the Area by the Department, whichever occurs first. Additional review shall also take place on request by the United States or the state.
      h. Within 6 months of initiation of a review, the TOC shall provide a report of the review, including any recommendation for modification, and a dissenting report, if any, to the Department and the United States. Recommendations shall be based on a determination by a supermajority of the entire TOC that the modification is necessary to prevent adverse effect to the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP, or that modification may be made without the threat of adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP. The recommendation shall be made in good faith and based on scientific evidence including, but not limited to, the following:
      i. in the case of extension of boundaries, the criteria set out in the Working Group Report for designation of the boundary of the Area to be enlarged is found to exist within the proposed extension;
      ii. the cumulative effect of groundwater development within the Area or a portion of the Area has resulted in declining hydraulic head and modification of boundaries or restrictions are necessary to prevent adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP;
      iii. changes in groundwater revealed by the inventory and sampling program are such that modification is necessary to prevent adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP;
      iv. scientific evidence indicates that modification is necessary to prevent adverse effect on the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP;
      v. based on scientific evidence, restrictions can be removed or boundary modifications made without the threat of adverse effect to the hydrothermal system within the reserved land of YNP.
      2. Modification Pursuant to Review
      a. Within 60 days of mailing of the report in Article IV, section J.1.h., and if (1) the TOC recommends modification; (2) the United States, state or a person with property or water rights within the Area petitions for a hearing; or (3) a person with an interest that would be adversely affected by the recommendation, petitions for a hearing, the Department shall provide for notice of a hearing pursuant to state law.
      b. The Department shall follow the rules for a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4 of the Montana Code Annotated. In addition, the Department shall apply the following provisions:
      i. The report or reports, data and other written information produced by the TOC shall be admissible in the hearing without further foundation and not subject to the hearsay objection, subject to the rights of any party or claimant to cross-examine the producer or drafter of the written material and to controvert the same by other evidence. The hearing officer may request that members of the TOC appear to provide expert testimony in the case. The hearing officer shall also hear any oral and written scientific evidence presented by the state, the United States, any applicant for a permit to appropriate who has requested review, and any person with property or water rights in the Area, or an interest that would be adversely affected by the recommended modification.
      ii. The scientific evidence and recommendations presented in the report by the TOC have a rebuttable presumption of validity for the purposes of Article IV. The Department shall adopt the recommendations of the TOC unless the recommendation by the TOC is refuted by clear and convincing scientific evidence. The dissenting report of the TOC, if any, may be used as rebuttal evidence.
      iii. The Department shall issue an order stating findings of fact and conclusions of law.
      c. Within 30 days of an order by the Department, a person aggrieved by the order may appeal on the record to a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction. For an appeal to state court, venue shall be the First Judicial District in Helena and the review must be conducted according to the procedures for judicial review of a contested case under the Montana Administrative Procedures Act, Title 2, Chapter 4, of the Montana Code Annotated.

ARTICLE V GENERAL PROVISIONS


      A. No Effect on Tribal Rights or Other Federal Reserved Water Rights:
      1. Nothing in this Compact may be construed or interpreted in any manner to establish the nature, extent or manner of administration of the rights to water [with respect to BHNB, GNP, and YNP or] the nature or extent of the rights to water or the right to administer water [with respect to BCNRA and LBBNM] of an Indian Tribe in Montana, or of a water right of an individual that is derivative of such right, or of the United States on behalf of such tribe or tribal member. The relationship between the water rights of the National Park Service described herein and any rights to water of an Indian Tribe in Montana, or of a water right of an individual that is derivative of such right, or of the United States on behalf of such tribe or tribal member shall be determined by the rule of priority. The United States specifically recognizes the seniority of the Crow Tribal Water Rights.
      2. Nothing in this Compact is otherwise intended to conflict with or abrogate a right or claim of an Indian Tribe regarding boundaries or property interests in the State of Montana.
      3. Nothing in this Compact may be construed or interpreted in any manner to establish the nature, extent or manner of administration of the rights to water of any other federal agency or federal lands in Montana other than those of the National Park Service. The exercise of a water right of the United States, if any, to water for a consumptive use on land administered by the United States Forest Service upstream of a water right to instream flow described in this Compact shall be allocated from the United States' share for instream flow, not the state's share for consumptive use.
      B. State Water Rights
      Nothing in this Compact may limit the exclusive authority of the state, including the authority of a water commissioner authorized by state law, to administer all current and future water rights recognized under state law within and upstream of the reserved land covered by this Compact, provided that in administration of those water rights in which the United States has an interest, such authority is limited to that granted under federal law.
      C. General Disclaimers
      Nothing in this Compact may be construed or interpreted:
      1. as a precedent for the litigation or the interpretation or administration of future compacts between the United States and the state; or of the United States and any other state;
      2. as a waiver by the United States of its right under state law to raise objections in state court to individual water rights claimed pursuant to the state Water Use Act, Title 85, of the Montana Code Annotated, in the basins affected by this Compact;
      3. as a waiver by the United States of its right to seek relief from a conflicting water use not entitled to protection under the terms of this Compact;
      4. to establish a precedent for other agreements between the state and the United States or an Indian tribe;
      5. to determine the relative rights, inter sese, of persons using water under the authority of state law or to limit the rights of the parties or a person to litigate an issue not resolved by this Compact;
      6. to create or deny substantive rights through headings or captions used in this Compact;
      7. to expand or restrict any waiver of sovereign immunity existing pursuant to federal law as of the effective date of this Compact;
      8. to affect the right of the state to seek fees or reimbursement for costs or the right of the United States to contest the imposition of such fees or costs, pursuant to a ruling by a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction or Act of Congress;
      9. to affect in any manner the entitlement to or quantification of other federal water rights. This Compact is only binding on the United States with regard to the water rights of the National Park Service, and does not affect the water rights of any other federal agency.
      10. to alter or amend any provisions of the Yellowstone River Compact, Act of October 30, 1951, ch. 629, 65 Stat. 663 (1951).
      D. Use of Water Right
      Except as otherwise provided in this Compact, the rights of the United States described in this agreement are federal reserved water rights. Non-use of all or a part of the federal reserved water rights described in this Compact shall not constitute abandonment of the right. The federal reserved water rights described in this Compact need not be applied to a use deemed beneficial under state law, but shall be restricted to uses necessary to fulfill the purposes of the associated reserved land.
      E. Appropriation Pursuant to State Law
      Nothing in this Compact may prevent the United States from seeking a permit to appropriate water under state law for use outside the boundaries of the federal reservations for which a water right is described in this Compact, provided that, no such use may be included in the calculation of total current or future consumptive use rights allocated to use pursuant to state law by this Compact, and provided further that, a water right obtained in this manner shall be considered a state water right and shall be administered pursuant to general provisions of state law as provided in Article II, section J.2.b.
      F. Reservation of Rights
      The parties expressly reserve all rights not granted, described or relinquished in this Compact.
      G. Severability
      Except as provided in Article IV, the provisions of this Compact are not severable, provided that for the purposes of Sec. 85-2-702(3) MCA, the water rights described in this Compact for the LBBNM and BCNRA Units shall be considered as separate Compacts.
      H. Multiple Originals
      This Compact is executed in quintuplicate. Each of the five (5) Compacts bearing original signatures shall be deemed an original.
      I. Notice
      Unless otherwise specifically provided for in this Compact, service of notice required hereunder, except service in litigation, shall be:
      1. State: Upon the Director of the Department and such other officials as he or she may designate in writing.
      2. United States: Upon the Secretary of the Interior and such other officials as he or she may designate in writing.

ARTICLE VI FINALITY OF COMPACT AND DISMISSAL OF PENDING CASES


      A. Binding Effect
      1. The effective date of this Compact is the date of the ratification of this Compact by the Montana legislature, written approval by the United States Department of the Interior, or written approval by the United States Department of Justice, whichever occurs later. Once effective, all of the provisions of this Compact shall be binding on:
      a. The state and a person or entity of any nature whatsoever using, claiming or in any manner asserting a right under the authority of the state to the use of water; and
      b. except as otherwise provided in Article V, section A., the United States, a person or entity of any nature whatsoever using, claiming, or in any manner asserting a right under the authority of the United States to the use of water.
      2. Following the effective date, this Compact shall not be modified without the consent of both parties. Either party may seek enforcement of this Compact in a court of competent jurisdiction. Except as provided in Article IV concerning the appropriation of funds, attempt to unilaterally modify this Compact by either party shall render this Compact voidable at the election of the other party.
      3. On approval of this Compact by a state or federal court of competent jurisdiction and entry of a decree by such court confirming the rights described herein, this Compact and such rights are binding on all persons bound by the final order of the court.
      4. If an objection to this Compact is sustained pursuant to 85-2-702(3), MCA, this Compact shall be voidable by action of and without prejudice to either party.
      B. Disposition of Actions
      Subject to the following stipulations and within one hundred eighty (180) days of the effective date, the parties shall submit this Compact to an appropriate state court or courts having jurisdiction over this matter in an action commenced pursuant to 43 U.S.C. §666, for approval in accordance with state law and for the incorporation of the reserved water rights described in this Compact into a decree or decrees entered therein. The parties understand and agree that the submission of this Compact to a state court or courts, as provided for in this Compact, is solely to comply with the provisions of 85-2-702(3), MCA, and does not expand the jurisdiction of the state court or expand in any manner the limited waiver or sovereign immunity of the United States in the McCarran Amendment, 43 U.S.C. §666 or other provision of federal law.
      1. Dismissal of Filed Claims: At the time the state courts approve the reserved water rights described in this Compact and enter a decree or decrees confirming the rights described herein, such courts shall dismiss, with prejudice, all of the water right claims specified in Appendix 4 to this Compact. If this Compact fails approval or a reserved water right described herein is not confirmed, the specified claims shall not be dismissed.
      2. Disposition of Federal Suits: Within ninety (90) days of the issuance of a final decree or decrees by the state courts approving this Compact and confirming the reserved water rights described herein, and the completion of any direct appeals therefrom or the expiration of the time for filing such appeal, the parties shall execute and file joint motions pursuant to Rule 41(a) Fed. R. Civ. P. to dismiss with prejudice those claims made by the United States for Glacier National Park in United States v. Aageson, No. CV-79-21-GF (D. Mont.); United States v. Abell, No. CV-79-33M (D. Mont.); and United States v. AMS Ranch, Inc., No. CV-79-22-GF (D. Mont.) and any claims made by the United States for LBBNM or BCNRA in federal court. This Compact may be filed as a consent decree in those federal suits, only if, prior to the dismissal of the federal suits as provided in this Article, it is finally determined in a judgement binding on the State of Montana that the state courts lack jurisdiction over some or all of the reserved water rights described in this Compact. Within one year of such judgment the United States agrees to commence such additional proceedings in the federal district court for the District of Montana as may be necessary to judicially confirm the reserved water rights described herein which are not included within an existing action.
      C. Settlement of Claims
      The parties intend that, with the exceptions noted herein, the water rights described in this Compact are in full and final settlement of the water right claims for the reserved land administered by the National Park Service in Montana on the effective date of this Compact. Pursuant to this settlement, by which certain federal reserved water rights are expressly recognized by the state in this Compact and other water rights claims of the United States are expressly retained in Article III, sections D. and F. in the Compact for YNP, GNP, and BHNM, the United States hereby and in full settlement of any and all claims filed by the United States or which could have been filed by the United States for reserved land administered by the National Park Service in Montana relinquishes forever all said claims on the effective date of this Compact to water within the State of Montana for reserved land administered by the National Park Service. The state agrees to recognize the reserved water rights described and quantified herein, and shall, except as expressly provided for herein, treat them in the same manner as a water right recognized by the state.
      Specifically excepted from this final settlement of water rights are water rights Claims No. 43P-W-162354-00 and 43P-W-162348-00, both of which are claimed in the general adjudication of water rights as state law based water rights. Claim No. 43P-W-162354-00 is for 0.75 cfs from the Big Horn Canal for irrigation purposes at the Bighorn River Ranch site within BCNRA. Claim No. 43P-W-162348-00 is for 50 gpm from Pete's Spring for recreation and wildlife purposes and is located outside of the BCNRA boundary.
      D. The parties agree to seek enactment of legislation and to recommend appropriation of federal funds necessary to effectuate the provisions and purposes of this Compact, and to defend the provisions and purposes of this Compact from all challenges and attacks.
      IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives of the State of Montana and the United States have signed this Compact on the 30th day of May, 1995.

FOR THE STATE OF MONTANA MONTANA RESERVED WATER RIGHTS COMPACT COMMISSION FOR THE UNITED STATES

     History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 635, L. 1993; Sec. 85-2-706, MCA 1993; redes. 85-20-401 by Code Commissioner, 1994; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 149, L. 1995.

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