Montana Code Annotated 2015

Clickable Image


     85-20-901. Crow Tribe-Montana compact ratified. The compact entered into by the State of Montana and the Crow Tribe and filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Montana under the provisions of 85-2-702 on June 22, 1999, is ratified. The compact is as follows:

WATER RIGHTS COMPACT ENTERED INTO BY THE STATE OF MONTANA, THE CROW TRIBE, AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


      This Compact is entered into by and among the State of Montana, the Crow Tribe, and the United States of America for the purpose of settling any and all existing water rights claims of or on behalf of the Crow Tribe of Indians in the State of Montana.

ARTICLE I - RECITALS


      WHEREAS, in 1975, the United States, on behalf of the Crow Tribe, brought suit in the United States District Court for the District of Montana to obtain a final determination of the Tribe's water rights, see, U.S. v. Big Horn Low Line Canal Company, et al., No. CIV-75-34-BLG (filed April 17, 1975); and
      WHEREAS, Congress consented to state court jurisdiction over the quantification of claims to water rights held by the United States of America in trust for the Tribe; see, "the McCarran Amendment", 43 U.S.C. 666(a)(1)(1952); Colorado River Water Conservation Dist. v. United States, 424 U.S. 800 (1976); Arizona v. San Carlos Apache Tribe, 463 U.S. 545 (1983); and
      WHEREAS, the State of Montana initiated a general stream adjudication pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 697, Laws of Montana 1979, which includes Crow tribal water rights; and
      WHEREAS, the United States has filed claims on behalf of the Crow Tribe in the general stream adjudication initiated by the State of Montana; and
      WHEREAS, the lands and waters constituting the Crow Indian Reservation and Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip were part of the area recognized as the territory of the Crow Indians under the Treaty of Fort Laramie of September 17, 1851 and also were part of the area set apart for the Crow Tribe under the Treaty of Fort Laramie of May 7, 1868; and
      WHEREAS, for the purposes of this Compact, the priority date for the Tribal Water recognized is May 7, 1868, which is the senior water right on the water sources covered by this Compact; and
      WHEREAS, the Montana Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission, under 85-2-702(1), MCA, is authorized to negotiate settlement of water rights claims filed by Indian tribes or on their behalf by the United States claiming reserved waters within the State of Montana; and
      WHEREAS, the federal district court litigation was stayed in 1983 pending the outcome of Montana State court water adjudication proceedings, see, Northern Cheyenne Tribe v. Adsit, 721 F.2d 1187, 1189 (9th Cir. 1983); and
      WHEREAS, the adjudication of Crow tribal water rights in the state court proceedings has been suspended while negotiations are proceeding to conclude a compact resolving all water rights claims of the Crow Tribe within the State of Montana; and
      WHEREAS, the Crow Tribal Council, or its duly designated representatives, have authority to negotiate this Compact pursuant to Resolution No. 99-33; and
      WHEREAS, the United States Attorney General, or a duly designated official of the United States Department of Justice, has authority to execute this Compact on behalf of the United States pursuant to the authority to settle litigation contained in 28 U.S.C. Sections 516-17 (1993); and
      WHEREAS, the Secretary of the Interior, or a duly designated official of the United States Department of the Interior, has authority to execute this Compact on behalf of the United States Department of the Interior pursuant to 43 U.S.C. Section 1457 (1986, Supp. 1992), inter alia; and
      WHEREAS, the Crow Tribe, the State of Montana, and the United States agree that the Tribal Water Right described in this Compact shall be in satisfaction of all the Tribe's water rights claims within the State of Montana; and
      WHEREAS, it is in the best interest of all Parties that the water rights claims of the Crow Tribe be settled through agreement between and among the Tribe, the State of Montana, and the United States; and
      WHEREAS, in settling the water rights claims of the Crow Tribe the Parties do not intend to alter or amend or to adopt or preclude any interpretation of the Yellowstone River Compact (Act of October 10, 1951, ch. 629, 65 Stat.663 (1951));
      NOW THEREFORE, the Parties agree to enter into this Compact for the purpose of settling the water rights claims of the Crow Tribe within the State of Montana.

ARTICLE II - DEFINITIONS


      The following definitions shall apply for purposes of this Compact:
      1. "Acre-foot" or "AF" means the amount of water necessary to cover one acre to a depth of one foot and is equivalent to 43,560 cubic feet.
      2. "Acre Feet Per Year" or "AFY" means the quantity of water to which the Tribe has a right each year measured in acre feet over a period of a year.
      3. "Adverse Affect" or "Adversely Affect" means interference with or to interfere with the reasonable exercise of a water right.
      4. "Bighorn River Basin" means Water Court Basin 43P, the mainstem of the Bighorn River and its tributaries (exclusive of the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries) within Montana to its confluence with the Yellowstone River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      5. "Bighorn Lake" means the body of water impounded on the Bighorn River by Yellowtail Dam, Yellowtail Unit, Lower Bighorn Division, Pick-Sloan Missouri Program, Montana.
      6. "Board" means the Crow - Montana Compact Board established by Section F, of Article IV of this Compact.
      7. "Ceded Strip" means the area covered by Article III of the Act of April 27, 1904 (33 Stat. 352), as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 5.
      8. "Change in Use" as applied to the Tribal Water Right, means a change in the point of diversion, the place of use, the purpose of use, or the place or the means of storage.
      9. "Clarks Fork Yellowstone River Basin" means Water Court Basin 43D, the mainstem of the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and its tributaries from the Montana-Wyoming border to its confluence with the Yellowstone River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      10. "Crow Irrigation Project" means the irrigation project authorized by the Act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 989, 1040) managed by the United States, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, consisting of the following project units: Agency, Big Horn, Forty Mile, Lodge Grass 1, Lodge Grass 2, Pryor, Reno, Soap Creek, and Upper Little Horn; and including land held in trust by the United States for the Tribe or a Tribal member within the Bozeman Trail and Two Leggins districts which are managed by private irrigation associations as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      11. "DNRC" means the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, or any successor agency.
      12. "Effective Date" means the date on which the Compact is ratified by the Crow Tribal Council, by the Montana legislature, and by the Congress of the United States, whichever date is latest.
      13. "Groundwater" means any water that is beneath the ground surface.
      14. "Little Bighorn River Basin" means Water Court Basin 43O, the mainstem of the Little Bighorn River and its tributaries from the Montana-Wyoming border to its confluence with the Bighorn River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      15. "Natural Flow" means water that would exist in the Bighorn River and its tributaries in the absence of human intervention.
      16. "Parties" means the Tribe, the State, and the United States.
      17. "Person" means an individual or any other entity, public or private, including the State, the Tribe, and the United States and all officers, agents, and departments of each of the above.
      18. "Pryor Creek Basin" means Water Court Basin 43E, the mainstem of Pryor Creek and its tributaries from its headwaters to its confluence with the Yellowstone River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      19. "Recognized Under State Law" when referring to a water right, means a water right arising under Montana law or a water right held by a nonmember of the Tribe on land not held in trust by the United States for the Tribe or a Tribal member.
      20. "Release" means to discharge water from storage, or the discharge of water from storage.
      21. "Reservation" means the Crow Indian Reservation consisting of the area as presently set apart for the Crow Tribe pursuant to the following Treaty and laws: Article 2 of the Fort Laramie Treaty of May 7, 1868 (15 Stat. 649); the Act of April 11, 1882 (22 Stat. 42); the Act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 989); the Act of April 27, 1904 (33 Stat. 352); the Act of August 31, 1937 (50 Stat. 884); and, the Act of November 2, 1994 (108 Stat. 4636), as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 4.
      22. "Rosebud Creek Basin" means Water Court Basin 42A, the mainstem of Rosebud Creek and its tributaries from its headwaters to its confluence with the Yellowstone River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      23. "Secretary" means the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior, or his or her duly authorized representative.
      24. "Shoshone River Basin" means Water Court Basin 43N, the mainstem of the Shoshone River and its tributaries within Montana, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      25. "State" means the State of Montana and all officers, agents, departments, and political subdivisions thereof.
      26. "Tongue River Basin" means Water Court Basin 42B, the mainstem of the Tongue River and its tributaries from the Montana-Wyoming border to above and including Hanging Woman Creek, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      27. "Transfer" as applied to the Tribal Water Right, means to authorize a person to use all or any part of the Tribal Water Right through a service contract, lease, or other similar agreement of limited duration.
      28. "Tribal Water Resources Department" or "TWRD" means the Crow Tribal Water Resources Department, or any successor agency.
      29. "Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip" means all present and acquired interests in real property, including mineral interests, held in trust by the United States for the Tribe or Tribal members within the Ceded Strip, consisting of: Crow Indian allotments held in trust by the United States for the Tribe or Tribal members; interests restored to the Tribe pursuant to the Act of May 19, 1958 (72 Stat. 121), as modified by the Act of August 14, 1958 (72 Stat. 575); and other interests held in trust by the United States for the Tribe or Tribal members.
      30. "Tribal Water Right" means the right of the Crow Tribe, including any Tribal member, to divert, use, or store water as described in Article III of this Compact.
      31. "Tribe" means the Crow Tribe and all officers, agents, and departments thereof.
      32. "United States" means the federal government and all officers, agencies, and departments thereof.
      33. "Yellowstone River Basin between Bighorn River and Tongue River" means Water Court Basin 42KJ, the mainstem of the Yellowstone River and its tributaries between Bighorn River and Tongue River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.
      34. "Yellowstone River Basin between Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and Bighorn River" means Water Court Basin 43Q, the mainstem of the Yellowstone River and its tributaries between Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and Bighorn River, as depicted on the map attached as Appendix 2.

ARTICLE III - TRIBAL WATER RIGHT


      A. Basin 43P: Bighorn River.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume.
      a. Natural Flow. The Tribe has a quantified water right to the Natural Flow of the Bighorn River for current uses developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature and new development within the Reservation of 500,000 AFY. The use of this right is subject to Sections A.6. and A.8.a., of Article III, and the terms and conditions of the streamflow and lake level management plan agreed to in accordance with Section A.7., of Article III.
      (1). The Tribe has a right to divert or use or to authorize the diversion or use of water from the Natural Flow of the Bighorn River within the Reservation, subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV.
      (2). The Tribe may change the source of water from the Natural Flow of the Bighorn River to surface flow or storage of any tributary within the Bighorn River Basin within the Reservation or to Groundwater within the Bighorn River Basin within the Reservation, subject to the terms and conditions in Section C.2.a., of Article IV.
      (3). The use of the Tribal Water Right on units of the Crow Irrigation Project that divert water from the Bighorn River as part of that project is a use of the Natural Flow Tribal Water Right set forth in Section A.1.a., of Article III, in the Bighorn River Basin, and the use of this water shall be subject to federal law.
      b. Storage in Bighorn Lake.
      (1). Subject to the approval of, and any terms and conditions specified by, Congress and to the terms and conditions of the streamflow and lake level management plan agreed to in accordance with Section A.7., of Article III, the Tribe shall be entitled to an allocation of 300,000 AFY of water stored in Bighorn Lake. The Tribe and the State agree to seek as a part of that allocation the following:
      (a). not more than 150,000 AFY of the allocation provided in Section A.1.b.(1)., of Article III may be used or diverted as authorized by the Tribe, subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV; provided that, not more than 50,000 AFY may be used outside the Reservation subject to the terms and conditions in Section C.2.c., of Article IV. This storage allocation is in addition to the Natural Flow Tribal Water Right provided in Section A.1.a., of Article III.
      (b). not less than 150,000 AFY of the allocation provided in Section A.1.b.(1) of Article III shall only be:
     (i) managed so as to be available as a Release during low flow periods pursuant to streamflow and lake level management plan agreed to under Section A.7., of Article III; or
     (ii) used for beneficial purposes including diversions for consumptive uses in years of excess Natural Flows and excess storage, if any, when unappropriated or unallocated water is available, and subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV.
      (2). All other water stored in Bighorn Lake, except for the 6,000 AFY currently allocated by contract to the Montana Power Company, or its successor-in-interest, and the 30,000 AFY allocated by Congress to the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, shall be used only for flood control, production of power, maintenance of instream flows, maintenance of lake levels and carryover storage, consistent with Section A.7., of Article III and federal law.
      2. Priority Date.
      a. Natural Flow. The priority date of the Natural Flow Tribal Water Right set forth in Section A.1.a., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      b. Storage. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right to waters stored in Bighorn Lake set forth in Section A.1.b.(1)., of Article III shall be the priority date of the water right held by the Bureau of Reclamation as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, and except for the 50,000 AFY that may be used outside the Reservation as provided in Section A.1.b.(1).(a)., of Article III, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of this water right from any place and by any means within the Reservation for use within the Reservation, provided that, any diversion structure of the Tribal Water Right upstream of the Two Leggins diversion on the Bighorn River will be constructed to bypass streamflows established or modified pursuant to Section A.7., of Article III.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right may be used for any purpose within the Reservation allowed by Tribal and federal law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Bighorn River Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Bighorn River Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections A.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC (except for Water Reservation No. 1781-r (g)); water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basin. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. Administration and distribution between State and Tribal water uses within the Reservation shall be as provided in Section A.4., of Article IV.
      d. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Bighorn River Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV. Measures to prevent Adverse Affect may include Release of water from Bighorn Lake.
      e. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by new development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect on uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      7. Streamflow and Lake Level Management Plan. Pursuant to this Compact, the Tribe, the Secretary, and the State shall develop a streamflow and lake level management plan for the Bighorn River, from the Yellowtail Afterbay Dam to a point immediately upstream of the Two Leggins diversion, and for Bighorn Lake. The streamflow and lake level management plan shall be agreed to within one (1) year after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. If the streamflow and lake level management plan is not agreed to by the Tribe, the Secretary, or the State the provisions of Section A.4.d., of Article VII apply. The streamflow and lake level management plan is not required to be implemented until the Effective Date of this Compact. The streamflow and lake level management plan may be modified at any time with the consent of the Tribe, the Secretary, and the State. The Montana legislature intends that the streamflow management plan should provide enforceable mechanisms that protect the long-term biological viability of the blue ribbon wild trout fishery on the Bighorn River from the Yellowtail Afterbay Dam to the Two Leggins diversion.
      8. Basin Closure within the Bighorn River Basin.
      a. In the Bighorn River Basin, DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, provided that, in accordance with the terms and conditions in Section D.1., of Article IV, the DNRC may issue a certificate of water right or permit for use on fee land for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      b. The basin closure applies only to appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, issued under state law and is not a limit on new development of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in this Compact.
      c. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and is not a limit on change of use or transfers of water rights Recognized Under State Law, subject to the terms and conditions in Section D.2., of Article IV.
      B. Basin 43O: Little Bighorn River.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume.
      a. The Tribe has a water right for all surface flow, Groundwater, and storage within the Little Bighorn River Basin, except as provided for in Sections B.6., and B.7.a., of Article III, and except for water apportioned to Wyoming, if any, as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction or Congress. Development of the Tribal Water Right shall be subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV.
      b. The use of the Tribal Water Right on units of the Crow Irrigation Project that divert water in the Little Bighorn River Basin as part of that project is a use of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section B.1.a., of Article III, and the use of this water shall be subject to federal law. Water stored in Willow Creek Reservoir also is a use of the Tribal Water Right.
      2. Priority Date. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section B.1., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of the Tribal Water Right from any place and by any means within the Little Bighorn River Basin within the Reservation for use within the Reservation or in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip subject to the terms and conditions in Section F., of Article III and Section C.2.b., of Article IV.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right may be used within the Reservation for any purpose allowed by Tribal and federal law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Little Bighorn River Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Little Bighorn Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections B.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC (except for Water Reservation No. 1781-r (g)); water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basin. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. Administration and distribution between State and Tribal water uses within the Reservation shall be as provided in Section A.4., of Article IV.
      d. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Little Bighorn River Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      e. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by new development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect on uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      7. Basin Closure within the Little Bighorn River Basin.
      a. In the Little Bighorn River Basin, DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, provided that, in accordance with the terms and conditions in Section D.1., of Article IV, DNRC may issue a certificate of water right or permit for use on fee land for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      b. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, issued under state law and is not a limit on new development of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in this Compact.
      c. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and is not a limit on change of use or transfers of water rights Recognized Under State Law, subject to the terms and conditions in Section D.2., of Article IV.
      C. Basin 43E: Pryor Creek.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume.
      a. The Tribe has a water right for all surface flow, Groundwater, and storage within the Pryor Creek Basin within the Reservation, except as provided for in Sections C.6. and C.7.a., of Article III. Development of the Tribal Water Right shall be subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV.
      b. The use of the Tribal Water Right on units of the Crow Irrigation Project that divert water in the Pryor Creek Basin as part of that project is a use of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section C.1.a., of Article III, and the use of this water shall be subject to federal law.
      2. Priority Date. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section C.1., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of the Tribal Water Right from any place and by any means within the Pryor Creek Basin within the Reservation for use within the Reservation.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right may be used within the Reservation for any purpose allowed by Tribal and federal law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Pryor Creek Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Pryor Creek Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections C.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC; water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basin. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. Administration and distribution between State and Tribal water uses within the Reservation shall be as provided in Section A.4., of Article IV.
      d. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Pryor Creek Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      e. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by new development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect on uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      7. Basin Closure within the Pryor Creek Basin.
      a. In the Pryor Creek Basin, DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, provided that, in accordance with the terms and conditions in Section D.1., of Article IV, DNRC may issue a certificate of water right or permit for use on fee land for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      b. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, issued under state law and is not a limit on new development of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in this Compact.
      c. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and is not a limit on change of use or transfers of water rights Recognized Under State Law, subject to the terms and conditions in Section D.2., of Article IV.
      D. Basin 42A: Rosebud Creek.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume. The Tribe has a water right for all surface flow, Groundwater, and storage within the Rosebud Creek Basin within the Reservation, except as provided for in Sections D.6. and D.7., of Article III. Development of the Tribal Water Right shall be subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., of Article IV.
      2. Priority Date. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section D.1., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of the Tribal Water Right from any place and by any means within the Rosebud Creek Basin for use within the Reservation.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right may be used within the Reservation for any purpose allowed by Tribal and federal law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Within the Reservation. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Rosebud Creek Basin within the Reservation with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Rosebud Creek Basin with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections D.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC; water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued within the Reservation is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basin. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. Administration and distribution between State and Tribal water uses within the Reservation shall be as provided in Section A.4., of Article IV.
      d. Outside the Reservation. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Rosebud Creek Basin outside the Reservation are protected from an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of the Crow Tribal Water Right to the same extent provided in the Northern Cheyenne - Montana Compact, Sections A.3.c.i. and ii., of Article II, 85-20-301, MCA. Protection from an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of the Crow Tribal Water Right for the Northern Cheyenne Tribal Water Right shall only be as provided in Section D.7., of Article III.
      e. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law in the Rosebud Creek Basin within the Reservation with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, or outside the Reservation to the same extent provided in the Northern Cheyenne - Montana Compact, Section A.3.c.i. and ii., of Article II, 85-20-301, MCA.
      f. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect of uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      7. Protection of Northern Cheyenne Tribal Water Rights within the Northern Cheyenne Reservation.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, the Northern Cheyenne Tribal Water Right, recognized in the Northern Cheyenne - Montana Compact, Section A.3.a., of Article II, 85-20-301, MCA, is protected from an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of the Crow Tribal Water Right.
      b. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Crow Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of the Northern Cheyenne Tribal Water Right, recognized in the Northern Cheyenne - Montana Compact, Section A.3.a., of Article II, 85-20-301, MCA.
      8. Basin Closure within the Rosebud Creek Basin within the Reservation.
      a. In the Rosebud Creek Basin upstream from the point that Rosebud Creek or any tributary of Rosebud Creek leaves the Reservation, DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, provided that, in accordance with the terms and conditions in Section D.1., of Article IV, DNRC may issue a certificate of water right or permit for use on fee land for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      b. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, issued under state law and is not a limit on new development of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in this Compact.
      c. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and is not a limit on change of use or transfers of water rights Recognized Under State Law, subject to the terms and conditions in Section D.2., of Article IV.
      E. Youngs Creek drainage, Squirrel Creek drainage, Tanner Creek drainage, Dry Creek drainage, and Spring Creek drainage within Tongue River Basin; Sarpy Creek drainage within Yellowstone River Basin between Bighorn River and Tongue River; Cottonwood Creek drainage, Five Mile Creek drainage, and Bluewater Creek drainage within Clarks Fork Yellowstone River Basin; Sage Creek drainage within Shoshone River Basin; and, Fly Creek drainage, Blue Creek drainage, Dry Creek drainage, and Bitter Creek drainage within Yellowstone River Basin between Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and Bighorn River.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume. The Tribe has a water right for all surface flow, Groundwater, and storage within the Reservation within Youngs Creek drainage, Squirrel Creek drainage, Tanner Creek drainage, Dry Creek drainage, and Spring Creek drainage within Tongue River Basin; Sarpy Creek drainage within Yellowstone River Basin between Bighorn River and Tongue River; Cottonwood Creek drainage, Five Mile Creek drainage, and Bluewater Creek drainage within Clarks Fork Yellowstone River Basin; Sage Creek drainage within Shoshone River Basin; and, Fly Creek drainage, Blue Creek drainage, Dry Creek drainage, and Bitter Creek drainage within Yellowstone River Basin between Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and Bighorn River, except as provided in Sections E.6. and E.7.a., of Article III. Development of the Tribal Water Right shall be subject to the terms and conditions in Section C., Article IV.
      2. Priority Date. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section E.1., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of the Tribal Water Right from any place and by any means within the drainages listed in Section E.1., of Article III within the Reservation for use within the Reservation.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right may be used for any purpose within the Reservation allowed by Tribal and federal law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law in the drainages listed in Section E.1., of Article III, with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law in the drainages listed in Section E.1., of Article III with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections E.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends only to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC; water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basins. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. Administration and distribution between State and Tribal water uses within the Reservation shall be as provided in Section A.4., of Article IV.
      d. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law in each drainage listed in Section E.1., of Article III, with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      e. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect of uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      7. Basin Closure within the Reservation.
      a. In the drainages listed in Section E.l., of Article III, upstream from the point that each stream or its tributaries leaves the Reservation, DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, provided that, in accordance with the terms and conditions in Section D.1., of Article IV, DNRC may issue a certificate of water right or permit for use on fee land for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      b. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, issued under state law and is not a limit on new development of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in this Compact.
      c. The basin closure applies only to new appropriations not excepted from the permit process, as provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and is not a limit on change of use or transfers of water rights Recognized Under State Law, subject to the terms and conditions in Section D.2., of Article IV.
      F. Tribal Water Right in the Ceded Strip.
      1. Quantification - Source - Volume.
      a. Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip. As part of the Tribal Water Right, the Tribe has a right to divert a total of 47,000 AFY from surface flow, Groundwater, or storage within the Ceded Strip from portions of the Sarpy Creek drainage and Yellowstone River within Yellowstone River Basin between Bighorn River and Tongue River; Fly Creek drainage and Yellowstone River within Yellowstone River Basin between Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and Bighorn River; Pryor Creek Basin; and Bighorn River Basin for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip; and, water imported to the Ceded Strip from the Little Bighorn River Basin for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip. Diversion and use shall be subject to the terms and conditions in Sections C.1.c. and C.1.d., of Article IV.
      (1). This 47,000 AFY is in addition to the Tribal Water Right set forth in Sections A.1., B.1., C.1., and E.1., of Article III, except that any diversion of this right from surface flow, Groundwater, or storage within the Bighorn River Basin shall be deducted from the Tribal Water Right as set forth in Section A.1., of Article III.
      (2). No more than 47,000 AFY may be diverted and used in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip from all water sources, provided that:
      (a). no more than 2,500 AFY from all water sources including the Yellowstone River may be diverted upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and the Yellowstone River.
      (b). no more than 7,000 AF may be diverted from all sources including the Yellowstone River in any month, provided that, aggregate uses from all sources not exceed 47,000 AFY.
      b. Use limited to within the Ceded Strip. The Tribal Water Right of 47,000 AFY for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip shall be used only within the Ceded Strip and shall not be considered a Change in Use or Transfer outside the Reservation for purposes of Section C.2.c., of Article IV.
      c. Any portion of the 50,000 AFY set forth in Section A.1.b.(1).(a)., of Article III which may be used outside the Reservation may also be used in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip in addition to the Tribal Water Right of 47,000 AFY set forth in Section F.1.a., of Article III.
      2. Priority Date. The priority date of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section F.1.a., of Article III shall be May 7, 1868.
      3. Period of Use. The period of use of this water right shall be from January 1 through December 31 of each year.
      4. Points and Means of Diversion. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribe may divert or permit the diversion of the Tribal Water Right from any place and by any means for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip within the Ceded Strip.
      5. Purposes. Subject to the terms and conditions in Article IV, the Tribal Water Right for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip may be used for beneficial purposes allowed by Tribal, federal and state law.
      6. Protection of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law.
      a. Except as provided in Section G.2., of Article III, water rights Recognized Under State Law affected by the exercise of the Tribal Water Right in the Ceded Strip with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, are protected from:
      (1). an assertion of senior priority in the exercise of current uses of the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature.
      (2). new development of the Tribal Water Right after the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. New development of the Tribal Water Right shall be exercised as junior in priority to water rights Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. The protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law set forth in Sections F.6.a.(1). and (2)., of Article III extends to: valid existing water rights as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA; permits issued by DNRC; state water reservations issued by the Montana Board of Natural Resources and Conservation or DNRC (except for Water Reservation Nos. 1781-r and 10006-r); water rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA; and, water rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. With the exception of rights exempt from filing in the state adjudication pursuant to 85-2-222, MCA, and rights excepted from the permit process pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, a list of existing water rights as currently claimed and permits and reservations issued is attached as Appendix 3. Appendix 3 shall be modified by decrees resolving claims on the affected basins. Prior to issuance of the final decree, water rights protected shall be as recognized under state law, and all remedies available under state law shall be applicable. Appendix 3 may be modified due to clerical error or omission or to make Appendix 3 consistent with modifications in accordance with 85-2-237, 85-2-314, or 85-2-316(10) through (13), MCA.
      c. New development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right shall not Adversely Affect the exercise of water rights Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      d. Existing uses of the Tribal Water Right shall not be Adversely Affected by new development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right, except that the Tribe may allow Adverse Affect on uses of the Tribal Water Right on Tribally owned land.
      G. Additional Rights to Water. As part of the water rights specifically set forth in Sections A., B., C., D., E., and F., of Article III, the Tribe has a right to water from the following sources:
      1. Appurtenant Water Rights. For land within the Reservation acquired after the Effective Date of this Compact, the Tribe has the right to the use of any water right acquired as an appurtenance to the land. At such time that the acquired land is transferred to trust status, the water right appurtenant to the land acquired shall become part of and not in addition to the Tribal Water Right quantified in this Compact with a May 7, 1868 priority date, provided that, the acquired water right shall retain any protections set forth in this Compact. The Tribe shall notify DNRC of any acquisition of water in the Tribe's annual report and shall identify the water right acquired, as set forth in Section E.1., of Article IV. Any water right acquired shall be added as decreed by the Montana Water Court to the list of current uses of the Tribal Water Right as provided in Section E.2., of Article IV.
      2. Exempt Rights.
      a. Religious or cultural uses of the Tribal Water Right by Crow Tribal members within the Reservation in de minimis amounts shall be allowed without prior review by DNRC.
      b. In accordance with the terms and conditions in Section C.1., of Article IV, TWRD may authorize development of the Tribal Water Right for:
      (1). an appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      (2). an appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      (3). temporary emergency appropriations necessary to protect lives or property.
      c. Uses of the Tribal Water Right provided for in Sections G.2.a. and G.2.b., of Article III, are not subject to protection of water rights Recognized Under State Law provided in Sections A.6., B.6., C.6., D.6., D.7., E.6., and F.6., of Article III, or streamflows established or modified pursuant to Section A.7., of Article III.
      H. Proposed Decree. For purposes of entry in the Montana Water Court, the proposed decree of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Article III is attached as Appendix 1. If there are differences between Appendix 1 and the Final Decree, the Final Decree shall control.

ARTICLE IV - IMPLEMENTATION OF TRIBAL WATER RIGHT


      A. General Provisions.
      1. Trust Status of Tribal Water Right. The Tribal Water Right shall be held in trust by the United States.
      2. Tribal Water Right: Administration.
      a. Subject to the limitations imposed by this Compact and federal law, the use of the Tribal Water Right shall be administered by the Tribe through TWRD within the Reservation, in the Ceded Strip, and outside the Reservation. Disputes, not within the jurisdiction of the Compact Board set forth in F.4., of Article IV, concerning use of the Tribal Water Right in the Ceded Strip and outside the Reservation which raise issues concerning the application of state or federal law shall be resolved in a court of competent jurisdiction. Those disputes concerning use of the Tribal Water Right in the Ceded Strip and outside the Reservation which do not raise issues concerning the application of state or federal law shall be within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Tribe. Subject to the limitations imposed by this Compact, the Tribe shall have the final and exclusive jurisdiction to resolve all disputes concerning the Tribal Water Right between holders of water rights under the Tribal Water Right. TWRD shall develop policies and procedures for monitoring water use, diversions, and maintaining records of water use and development consistent with this Compact. The current water use and diversions and new development shall be identified by location and quantity.
      b. Administration and enforcement of the Tribal Water Right shall be pursuant to a Tribal water code, which shall be developed and adopted by the Tribe within two (2) years following the Effective Date of this Compact pursuant to any requirements set forth in the Constitution of the Crow Tribe. Pending the adoption of the Tribal water code, the administration and enforcement of the Tribal Water Right shall be by the Secretary of the Interior.
      c. The Tribe shall not administer any water right Recognized Under State Law.
      d. Administration, operation and maintenance, and delivery of the Tribal Water Right on the Crow Irrigation Project shall be conducted by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in accordance with applicable federal laws. Portions of the Project within the Bozeman Trail and Two Leggins Districts shall be administered in accordance with applicable law.
      3. Water Rights Recognized Under State Law: Administration.
      a. The State shall administer and enforce all water rights Recognized Under State Law to the use of surface flows, Groundwater, and storage within or outside the Reservation. The State shall have the final and exclusive jurisdiction to resolve all disputes between holders of water rights Recognized Under State Law.
      b. The State shall not administer or enforce any part of the Tribal Water Right.
      c. For water rights Recognized Under State Law, if any, utilizing water delivered by the Crow Irrigation Project, administration and distribution of such water shall be conducted by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in accordance with applicable federal laws.
      4. Distribution of Water Between the Parties. When water availability is insufficient to satisfy all water rights under the Tribal Water Right and all water rights Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation, administration and distribution shall be as follows:
      a. distribution between the water administered by the Tribe and the United States for current uses of the Tribal Water Right within the Reservation developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature and the water for water rights Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature shall be on an equitable basis in proportion to the amount of water required for Tribal water use as listed pursuant to Section E.2., of Article IV, and the amount of water required for water rights Recognized Under State Law, provided that, the Parties recognize that distribution may not be on a precise proportional basis due to the need to take into account the physical constraints of water delivery. Administration and distribution by the Tribe, the United States, and the State within their proportional shares shall be pursuant to Tribal, federal, and state law respectively, and shall be coordinated as necessary. This distribution shall not modify the right of a holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law to seek enforcement of such water right against other water rights Recognized Under State Law in priority without the agreement of the water right holder.
      b. future development of the Tribal Water Right after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature shall be enforced as junior in priority to the water rights subject to a proportional distribution as set forth in Section A.4.a., of Article IV.
      c. nothing in Section A.4.a., of Article IV shall prevent water users from agreeing to an alternative water distribution plan on the basis of individual water rights pursuant to applicable state, Tribal, or federal law.
      5. Subsequent Federal or State Law. Administration under Sections A.2.d., A.3.a. and A.3.c., of Article IV shall be as set forth in this Compact except as may otherwise be determined by a court of competent jurisdiction or established by Congress.
      B. Use of the Tribal Water Right.
      1. Persons Entitled to Use the Tribal Water Right. The Tribal Water Right may be used by the Tribe, Tribal members, or Persons authorized by the Tribe, provided that, the Tribe may not limit or deprive Indians residing on the Reservation or in the Ceded Strip of any right, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. . 381, to a just and equal portion of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Article III.
      2. Effect of Non-Use of the Tribal Water Right. State law doctrines relating to the use of water rights, including but not limited to relinquishment, forfeiture or abandonment, do not apply to the Tribal Water Right. Thus, non-use of all or any of the Tribal Water Right described in Article III shall not constitute a relinquishment, forfeiture or abandonment of such rights.
      C. Tribal Water Right: New Development, Change in Use, or Transfer.
      1. New Development of Surface Flow, Groundwater, or Storage of the Tribal Water Right.
      a. New Development of Surface Flow, Groundwater, or Storage Within the Reservation. After the Effective Date of this Compact, the Tribe may develop or authorize new development of surface flow, Groundwater, or storage of the Tribal Water Right within the Reservation; provided that, such development shall not Adversely Affect a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      b. Prerequisite Administrative Procedure within the Reservation. The following procedure for determining whether new development of surface flow, Groundwater, or storage of the Tribal Water Right within the Reservation will have an Adverse Affect on water rights Recognized Under State Law shall be followed prior to seeking relief from the Compact Board:
      (1). Application for new development of a surface flow, Groundwater, or storage use within the Reservation shall be made to TWRD.
      (2). TWRD shall review the application and make a determination of whether the new development will have an Adverse Affect on water rights Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV. Upon request by TWRD, DNRC shall provide information on state water rights as recorded in the DNRC database to TWRD.
      (3). If TWRD determines that the new development will have an Adverse Affect on a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, TWRD shall deny the application. If TWRD determines that the new development will not have an Adverse Affect on a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, TWRD shall forward the application with its determination to DNRC.
      (4). If, based upon the evidence, DNRC agrees with TWRD's determination, DNRC shall notify TWRD. If, however, based upon the evidence, DNRC cannot agree with TWRD's determination, DNRC shall publish notice of the application once in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of the source and shall serve notice by first-class mail on any holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law who, according to the records of the DNRC, has a water right with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, and may be affected by the proposed development. DNRC shall notify TWRD within ninety (90) days of DNRC's determination.
      (5). DNRC and TWRD should attempt to resolve any disagreement on TWRD's determination of no Adverse Affect on a cooperative basis. If DNRC or a holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, disagree with the determination of no Adverse Affect, DNRC or the water right holder may seek relief from the Compact Board.
      (6). In any proceeding concerning the effect of new Groundwater development of the Tribal Water Right within the Reservation either before TWRD, DNRC, or before the Compact Board, the following shall apply:
      (a). Wells Less than 100 Feet: For new Groundwater wells to be completed at a depth beneath the surface of less than 100 feet, the applicant shall bear the burden of showing no Adverse Affect to a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      (b). 100 Feet or Deeper Wells: For new Groundwater wells to be completed at a depth beneath the surface of 100 feet or deeper, the owner of a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, shall bear the burden of showing Adverse Affect to the water right.
      (7). In any proceeding concerning the effect of new storage development of the Tribal Water Right within the Reservation either before TWRD, DNRC, or before the Compact Board, the following shall apply:
      (a). Storage Over 50 AF: For new storage facilities with a planned constructed capacity of more than 50 AF, the applicant shall bear the burden of showing no Adverse Affect to a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      (b). Storage 50 AF or Less: For new storage facilities with a planned constructed capacity of 50 AF or less, the owner of the water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV, shall bear the burden of showing Adverse Affect to the water right.
      c. New Development of Surface Flow, Groundwater, or Storage for Use in Connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip. After the Effective Date of this Compact, the Tribe may develop or authorize new development, from surface flow, Groundwater, or storage, of the Tribal Water Right as set forth in Section F., of Article III and subject to the terms and conditions in Section F.1., of Article III for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip; provided that, such development shall not Adversely Affect a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV.
      d. Prerequisite Administrative Procedure within the Ceded Strip. The following procedure for determining whether new development of surface flow, Groundwater, or storage of the Tribal Water Right for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip will have an Adverse Affect on water rights Recognized Under State Law shall be followed prior to seeking relief from the Compact Board:
      (1). Application for new development of surface flow, Groundwater, or storage of the Tribal Water Right for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip shall be made to TWRD.
      (2). TWRD shall review the application and make a determination of whether the new development will have an Adverse Affect on water rights Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA. Upon request by TWRD, DNRC shall provide information on state water rights as recorded in the DNRC database to TWRD.
      (3). If TWRD determines that the new development will have an Adverse Affect on a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, TWRD shall deny the application. If TWRD determines that the new development will not have an Adverse Affect on a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, TWRD shall forward the application with its determination to DNRC.
      (4). If, based upon the evidence, DNRC agrees with TWRD's determination, DNRC shall notify TWRD. If, however, based upon the evidence, DNRC cannot agree with TWRD's determination, DNRC shall publish notice of the application once in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of the source and shall serve notice by first-class mail on any holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law who, according to the records of the department, has a water right with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, and may be affected by the proposed development. DNRC shall notify TWRD within ninety (90) days of DNRC's determination.
      (5). DNRC and TWRD should attempt to resolve any disagreement on TWRD's determination of no Adverse Affect on a cooperative basis. If DNRC or a holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, disagree with the determination of no Adverse Affect, DNRC or the water right holder may seek relief from the Compact Board.
      (6). In any proceeding concerning the effect of new Groundwater development of the Tribal Water Right for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip either before TWRD, DNRC, or before the Compact Board, the following shall apply:
      (a). Wells Less than 100 Feet: For new Groundwater wells to be completed at a depth beneath the surface of less than 100 feet, the applicant shall bear the burden of showing no Adverse Affect to a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or exempt rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA.
      (b). 100 Feet or Deeper Wells: For new Groundwater wells to be completed at a depth beneath the surface of 100 feet or deeper, the owner of a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, shall bear the burden of showing Adverse Affect to the water right.
      (7). In any proceeding concerning the effect of new storage development of the Tribal Water Right for use in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip either before TWRD, DNRC, or before the Compact Board, the following shall apply:
      (a). Storage Over 50 AF: For new storage facilities with a planned constructed capacity of more than 50 AF, the applicant shall bear the burden of showing no Adverse Affect to a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA.
      (b). Storage 50 AF or Less: For new storage facilities with a planned constructed capacity of 50 AF or less, the owner of the water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or excepted rights that are provided in Section D.1., of Article IV or pursuant to 85-2-306, MCA, shall bear the burden of showing Adverse Affect to the water right.
      e. Groundwater Development of the Tribal Water Right Exempt from the Showing of No Adverse Affect. The following wells are exempt from the requirement of showing no Adverse Affect:
      (1). Wells developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature are exempt from the burden to show no Adverse Affect. These wells may be replaced, repaired or rehabilitated to the original constructed capacity. A comprehensive list of wells developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature shall be kept on file in TWRD offices as part of the requirement to list current uses of the Tribal Water Right in Section E.2., of Article IV.
      (2). An authorized use of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      f. Storage Development of the Tribal Water Right Exempt from the Showing of No Adverse Affect. The following storage facilities are exempt from the requirement of showing no Adverse Affect:
      (1). Facilities storing the Tribal Water Right developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature are exempt from the burden to show no Adverse Affect. These storage facilities may be replaced, repaired or rehabilitated to the original constructed capacity. A comprehensive list of storage facilities developed as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature shall be kept on file in TWRD offices as part of the requirement to list current uses of the Tribal Water Right in Section E.2., of Article IV.
      (2). An authorized use of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      2. Change in Use or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right.
      a. Change in Use or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right Within the Reservation. Unless otherwise stated in this Compact, the Tribe may make or authorize a Change in Use or Transfer of a water right set forth in Article III of this Compact within the Reservation; provided that, such Change in Use or Transfer shall not Adversely Affect a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before the date of the Change in Use or Transfer. Determination of Adverse Affect shall be made following the same procedure used for review of new surface flow, Groundwater, or storage development of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Sections C.1.a. and C.1.b., of Article IV.
      b. Change in Use or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right Within the Ceded Strip. Unless otherwise stated in this Compact, the Tribe may make or authorize a Change in Use or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right set forth in Section F.1.a., of Article III within the Ceded Strip; provided that, such Change in Use or Transfer shall not Adversely Affect a water right Recognized Under State Law with a priority date before the date of the Change in Use or Transfer. Determination of Adverse Affect shall be made following the same procedure used for review of new surface flow, Groundwater, or storage development of the Tribal Water Right within the Ceded Strip set forth in Sections C.1.c. and C.1.d., of Article IV.
      c. Change in Use or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right Outside the Reservation. Except as otherwise provided in this Compact, the Tribe, pursuant to federal law, may make or authorize a Change in Use or a Transfer of the Tribal Water Right for up to 50,000 acre-feet of water as provided in Section A.1.b.(1).(a)., of Article III, for use outside the Reservation; provided that, any Transfer shall be for a term not to exceed 100 years, and may include provisions authorizing renewal for an additional term not to exceed 100 years; and provided that, no such Transfer shall be a permanent alienation of the water Transferred. Any Change in Use or Transfer of any such water right involving a point of diversion or place of use located outside the Reservation shall be considered a use outside the Reservation, except as provided in Section F., of Article III and Section C.2.b., of Article IV; and, further provided that, any use of Tribal water rights described in this Compact outside the Reservation shall not be deemed to convert such rights to rights arising under state law, and non-use of such rights outside the Reservation shall not constitute a relinquishment, forfeiture, or abandonment of the rights. The Tribe may change the point of diversion or purpose or place of use of the Tribal Water Right back to the Reservation without reduction in the amount of water provided in the Compact.
      (1). Applicable Law. No person may initiate a use, Change in Use, or Transfer of a Tribal water right set forth in this Compact outside the Reservation without first complying with applicable state law. Approval of an application for a use, Change in Use, or Transfer outside the Reservation by the State shall be conditioned on a valid Tribal authorization for such use, Change in Use, or Transfer by the Tribe. The applicant shall provide DNRC with proof of a valid Tribal authorization prior to initiating the use, Change in Use, or Transfer.
      (2). Diversion Facilities. With respect to diversion or transportation facilities located outside the Reservation which are to be used in connection with the exercise of a water right set forth in this Compact, the Tribe or Persons using such water right shall apply for all permits, certificates, variances and other authorizations required by state laws regulating, conditioning or permitting the siting, construction, operation, alteration or use of any equipment, device, facility or associated facility proposed to use or transport water. A diversion or use of water in the exercise of such water right may be made only after all permits, certificates, variances or other authorizations applied for pursuant to this paragraph have been obtained.
      D. Water Rights Recognized Under State Law: New Development, Change in Use, or Transfer.
      1. Limit on New Development. DNRC shall not process or grant an application for an appropriation after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature within the Reservation, and outside the Reservation in Bighorn River Basin and in Pryor Creek Basin, provided that, the Department may issue certificates of water right or permits for use on fee land for:
      a. An appropriation of Groundwater by means of a well or developed spring with a maximum appropriation of 35 gallons per minute or less, not to exceed 10 acre-feet per year, unless the appropriation is a combined appropriation from the same source from two or more wells or developed springs exceeding the limitation.
      b. An appropriation of water for use by livestock if the maximum capacity of the impoundment or pit is less than 15 acre-feet and the appropriation is less than 30 acre-feet per year and is from a source other than a perennial flowing stream.
      c. Temporary emergency appropriations as provided in 85-2-113(3), MCA.
      2. Change in Use or Transfer of Water Rights Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation. The State may authorize a change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation in accordance with state law, provided that, such change or transfer shall not Adversely Affect a use of the Tribal Water Right existing at the time of the application for change in use or transfer.
      a. Prerequisite Administrative Procedure. The following procedure for determining whether a change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation will have an Adverse Affect on an existing water right developed or authorized prior to the date of application for change of use or transfer under the Tribal Water Right shall be followed prior to seeking relief from the Compact Board:
      (1). Application for a change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation shall be made to DNRC.
      (2). DNRC shall review the application and make a determination of whether the change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation will have an Adverse Affect on a water right developed or authorized under the Tribal Water Right. Upon request by DNRC, TWRD shall provide information on developed and authorized Tribal Water Rights as recorded by TWRD to DNRC.
      (3). If DNRC determines that the change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation will have an Adverse Affect on a water right developed or authorized under the Tribal Water Right, DNRC shall deny the application. If DNRC determines that the change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation will not have an Adverse Affect on a water right developed or authorized under the Tribal Water Right, DNRC shall forward the application with its determination to TWRD.
      (4). If, based upon the evidence, TWRD agrees with DNRC's determination, TWRD shall notify DNRC. If, however, based upon the evidence, TWRD cannot agree with DNRC's determination, TWRD shall publish notice of the application once in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of the source and shall serve notice by first-class mail on any Tribal Water Right holder who, according to the records of TWRD, has a water right developed or authorized before the application date and may be affected by the proposed change in use or transfer of a water right Recognized Under State Law within the Reservation. TWRD shall notify DNRC within ninety (90) days of TWRD's determination.
      (5). TWRD and DNRC should attempt to resolve any disagreement on DNRC's determination of no Adverse Affect on a cooperative basis. If TWRD or a holder of a water right developed or authorized under the Tribal Water Right disagree with the determination of no Adverse Affect, TWRD or the Tribal Water Right holder may seek relief from the Compact Board.
      E. Reporting Requirements.
      1. On an annual basis DNRC shall provide the Tribe and the United States with a listing of all uses of surface flow, Groundwater, or storage for which a certificate of water right or permit has been issued or a change in use or transfer has been approved by DNRC within the Reservation, in the Ceded Strip, and in drainages affected by this Compact.
      2. Within one (1) year after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature, the TWRD and the United States shall provide the DNRC with a report listing all current uses of the Tribal Water Right, including uses by Tribal members, existing as of the date this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature. DNRC may request additional information from TWRD or the United States to assist in reviewing the report. DNRC must approve or disapprove of the listing of all current uses of the Tribal Water Right within six (6) months after receipt of the report.
      3. On an annual basis TWRD shall provide the DNRC and the United States with a listing of all new development of the Tribal Water Right described in this Compact within the Reservation, in the Ceded Strip, and outside the Reservation, and of all Changes in Use or Transfers of water rights within and outside the reservation since the last report.
      4. TWRD, DNRC, and the United States may agree to modify the reporting requirements set forth in Sections D.1. and D.3., of Article IV. Such modification is pursuant to, and shall not be deemed a modification of, this Compact.
      5. All reporting to the United States under this subsection shall be made to the Billings Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
      F. Enforcement: Crow-Montana Compact Board.
      1. Establishment of Board. There is hereby established the Crow-Montana Compact Board. The Board shall consist of three members: one member selected by the Governor of the State of Montana; one member appointed by the Crow Tribal Chairman; and one member selected by the other two members. All members shall be appointed within six (6) months of the Effective Date of this Compact and within thirty (30) days of the date any vacancy occurs. If an appointment is not timely made by the Governor, the Director of DNRC or his/her designee shall fill the State's position. If an appointment is not timely made by the Crow Tribal Chairman, the Director of TWRD or his/her designee shall fill the Tribe's position. Each member shall serve a five-year term and shall be eligible for reappointment. The initial term of each member shall be staggered with one member serving a five-year term, one a four-year term, and one a three-year term. The initial term of each member shall be chosen by lot. Expenses of the members appointed by the State and the Tribe shall be borne by the entity appointing the member. The expenses of the third member and all other expenses shall be borne equally by the Tribe and the State, subject to the availability of funds.
      2. Membership. Should the two appointed members fail to agree on the selection of a third member within sixty (60) days of the date of appointment of the second member, or within thirty (30) days after any vacancy occurs, the following procedure shall be utilized:
      a. Within five (5) days thereafter each member shall nominate three persons to serve as a member of the Board;
      b. Within fifteen (15) days thereafter each member shall reject two of the persons nominated by the other member;
      c. Within five (5) days thereafter, the remaining two nominees shall be submitted to the Dean of the University of Montana School of Law who shall select the third member from the two nominees.
      3. Quorum and Vote Required. Two members of the Board shall constitute a quorum if reasonable notice of the time, place, and purpose of the meeting, hearing, or other proceeding has been provided in advance to the absent member. All Board decisions shall be by a majority of the Board, shall be in writing and, together with any dissenting opinions, shall be served on all parties in the proceeding before the Board, and on the Parties to this Compact.
      4. Jurisdiction of the Board. The Crow-Montana Compact Board shall have jurisdiction to resolve controversies over the right to the use of water as between the Parties or holders of water rights developed or authorized under the Tribal Water Right and holders of water rights Recognized Under State Law. Such controversies shall include, but shall not be limited to, disputes as to the meaning of this Compact.
      5. Prerequisite Administrative Procedures.
      a. Any holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law concerned that a new development, Change in Use, or Transfer of the Tribal Water Right is inconsistent with the Compact shall first contact the Billings Regional Office of DNRC. If DNRC and TWRD are unable to resolve the issue in a manner acceptable to the water right holder within a reasonable time through discussion, DNRC or the water right holder may seek relief through the Compact Board. The Tribe agrees to allow DNRC reasonable access onto Tribal land or to assist DNRC in obtaining reasonable access onto the land of the Tribal Water Right holder to observe the challenged new development, Change in Use, or Transfer.
      b. Any Tribal Water Right holder concerned that a new development, change in use, or transfer of water by a holder of a water right Recognized Under State Law is inconsistent with the Compact shall first contact TWRD. If TWRD and DNRC are unable to resolve the issue in a manner acceptable to the Tribal Water Right holder within a reasonable time through discussion, TWRD or the Tribal Water Right holder may seek relief through the Compact Board. DNRC agrees to assist TWRD in obtaining reasonable access onto the land of the holder of the water right Recognized Under State Law to observe the challenged development, change in use, or transfer.
      c. TWRD and DNRC may jointly develop supplemental procedures as necessary or appropriate. Such supplemental procedures are pursuant to, and shall not be deemed a modification of, this Compact.
      6. Powers and Duties. The Board shall hold hearings upon notice in proceedings before it and shall have the power to administer oaths, take evidence and issue subpoenas to compel attendance of witnesses or production of documents or other evidence, and to appoint technical experts. The Tribe and the State shall enforce the Board's subpoenas in the same manner as prescribed by the laws of the Tribe and the State for enforcing a subpoena issued by the courts of each respective sovereign in a civil action. The parties to the controversy may present evidence and cross examine any witnesses. The Board shall determine the controversy and grant any appropriate relief, including a temporary order; provided that, the Board shall have no power to award money damages, costs, or attorneys' fees. All decisions of the Board shall be by majority vote and in writing. The Board shall adopt necessary rules and regulations to carry out its responsibilities within six (6) months after its first meeting. All records of the Board shall be open to public inspection, except as otherwise ordered by the Board.
      7. Review and Enforcement of Board Decisions.
      a. Decisions by the Board shall be effective immediately, unless stayed by the Board. Unless otherwise provided by Congress, only the United States and parties to the proceedings before the Board may appeal any final decision by the Board to a court of competent jurisdiction within thirty (30) days of such decision. The hearing on appeal shall be a trial de novo. The notice of appeal shall be filed with the Board and served personally or by registered mail upon all parties to the proceeding before the Board.
      b. Unless an appeal is filed within thirty (30) days of a final decision of the Board, as provided in Section F.7.a., of Article IV, any decision of the Board shall be recognized and enforced by any court of competent jurisdiction on petition of the Board, or any party before the Board in the proceeding in which the decision was made.
      c. A court of competent jurisdiction in which a timely appeal is filed pursuant to Section F.7.a., of Article IV, or in which a petition to confirm or enforce is filed pursuant to Section F.7.b., of Article IV, may order such temporary or permanent relief as it considers just and proper.
      d. An appeal may be taken from any decision of the court in which a timely appeal is filed pursuant to Section f.7.a., of Article IV, or in which a petition to confirm or enforce is filed pursuant to Section F.7.b., of Article IV, in the manner and to the same extent as from orders or judgments of the court in a civil action.
      e. In any appeal or petition to confirm or enforce the Board's decision, the Board shall file with the court the record of the proceedings before the Board within sixty (60) days of filing of a notice of appeal.
      8. Waiver of Immunity. The Tribe and the State hereby waive their respective immunities from suit, including any defense the State shall have under the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, in order to permit the resolution of disputes under this Compact by the Crow-Montana Compact Board, and the appeal or judicial enforcement of Board decisions as provided herein, except that such waivers of sovereign immunity by the Tribe or the State shall not extend to any action for money damages, costs, or attorneys' fees. The Parties agree that only Congress can waive the immunity of the United States. The participation of the United States in the proceedings of the Compact Board shall be as provided by Congress.

ARTICLE V - DISCLAIMERS AND RESERVATIONS


      A. No Effect on Other Tribal Rights or Other Federal Reserved Water Rights.
      1. Except as provided in Sections A.1.b.(2). and D.7., of Article III, the relationship between the Tribal Water Right described herein and any rights to water of any other Indian Tribe or its members, or of the United States on behalf of such Tribe or its members shall be determined by the rule of priority.
      2. Nothing in this Compact may be construed or interpreted as a precedent to establish the nature, extent, or manner of administration of the rights to water of any other Indian tribes or their members outside of the Crow Reservation.
      3. Nothing in this Compact is otherwise intended to affect or abrogate a right or claim of an Indian Tribe other than the Crow Tribe.
      4. Except as otherwise provided herein and authorized by Congress, nothing in this Compact may be construed or interpreted in any manner to establish the nature, extent, or manner of administration of the reserved rights to water of any other federal agency or of any other federal lands. Such reserved rights will be subject to the rule of priority in their use.
      B. General Disclaimer. Nothing in this Compact shall be so construed or interpreted:
      1. As a precedent for the litigation of reserved water rights or the interpretation or administration of future compacts between the United States and the State, or the United States and any other state;
      2. To preclude the acquisition or exercise of a right Recognized Under State Law to the use of water by any member of the Tribe outside the Reservation by purchase of such right or by acquisition of land, or by application to the State;
      3. To determine the relative rights inter sese of Persons using water under the authority of the State or the Tribe;
      4. To limit in any way the rights of the Parties or any other person to litigate any issues or questions not resolved by this Compact;
      5. To authorize the taking of a water right which is vested under state or federal law;
      6. To create or deny substantive rights through headings or captions used in this Compact;
      7. To address or prejudge whether or how, in any interstate apportionment, the Tribe's water right shall be counted as part of the waters apportioned to the State;
      8. To prohibit the Tribe, or the United States on behalf of the Tribe, from objecting in any general stream adjudication in Montana Water Court to any claims to water rights;
      9. To constitute a waiver of sovereign immunity by the Tribe, State, or United States, except as is expressly set forth in this Compact;
      10. Unless otherwise provided by Congress, to prevent the United States, as trustee for the Tribe or Tribal members, or the Tribe itself, from filing an action in any court of competent jurisdiction, to prevent any party from interfering with the enjoyment of the Tribal Water Right;
      11. To impair, amend, or alter rights under existing state or federal law;
      12. To affect or determine the applicability of any state or federal law, including, without limitation, environmental and public safety laws, on activities of the Tribe or Tribal members within the Reservation or in connection with Tribal Interests in the Ceded Strip;
      13. To alter or amend any provision or to adopt or preclude any interpretation of the Yellowstone River Compact, Act of October 10, 1951, ch. 629, 65 Stat. 663 (1951);
      14. To alter or abridge any right reserved to the Crow Tribe of Indians under Article 4 of the May 7, 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie; or
      15. To prejudice any right that Tribal members may have to secure a portion of the Tribal Water Right from the Tribe.
      C. Rights Reserved. The Parties expressly reserve all rights not granted, recognized or relinquished in this Compact.
      D. Obligations of United States Contingent.
      1. Notwithstanding any other language in this Compact, except as authorized under other provisions of federal law, the obligations of the United States under this Compact shall be contingent on authorization by Congress.
      2. The State and the Tribe recognize that this Compact has not been reviewed and approved by the United States or any agency thereof and ratification by the Montana legislature or ratification by the Tribal Council in no manner binds or restricts the discretion of the United States in the negotiation of all related matters, including but not limited to, coal severance tax, Section 2 of the Crow Allotment Act (41 Stat. 751), water rights, and State and Federal contribution or cost share.
      E. Expenditures of Money Contingent. The expenditure or advance of any money or the performance of any work by the United States or the Tribe pursuant to this Compact which may require appropriation of money by Congress or allotment of funds shall be contingent on such appropriation or allotment being made.

ARTICLE VI - CONTRIBUTIONS TO SETTLEMENT


      A. State Contribution to Settlement.
      1. The State agrees to contribute the sum of $15 million, in equal annual installments for a period of no more than fifteen years beginning July 1, 1999, to a fund for the use and benefit of the Tribe.
      2. Payment of the State's contributions for the benefit of the Tribe is contingent on the final approval of this Compact by the Tribe and Congress, the final inclusion of the rights set forth in the Compact in decrees by the Montana Water Court and the expiration of the time for appeal from all orders effecting such inclusion or the affirmance of the decrees or orders on appeal, the provision of releases of claims as provided in Section A.4., of Article VI, and the fulfillment of any other conditions to the effectiveness of the Compact.
      3. Until all conditions for payment are fulfilled, the State and the Tribe agree that any payments due shall be paid into an interest-bearing escrow account, to be held without distribution of principal or interest until all conditions for payment to the Tribe are satisfied, except that the State and the Tribe may agree in writing that some portion of the interest earned on the funds in the escrow account may be disbursed to the Tribe before all conditions for payment are satisfied.
      4. The Tribe agrees that the State's contribution will be dedicated to economic development and water and sewer infrastructure within the Crow Reservation. The Tribe further agrees that the State's contributions as set forth in Section A.1., of Article VI and any other agreements that may be set forth in a separate coal severance tax settlement agreement between the State and Tribe should be considered as fully satisfying any cost-share obligation on the part of the State for this Compact. The Tribe further agrees that the State's contributions and agreements herein are full and adequate consideration for the Tribe's agreements as set forth in this Compact, and that the State's contributions, together with any other agreements that may be set forth in a separate coal severance tax settlement agreement between the State and the Tribe, are full and adequate consideration for the release of all claims by the Tribe and the United States in the civil action captioned Crow Tribe of Indians v. State of Montana, Cause No. CV-78-110-BLG-JDS (D. Mont.). The Tribe further agrees that in consideration of the State's contributions and other agreements set forth in a separate coal severance tax settlement agreement, the Tribe will provide releases of all claims, including any pleadings or proposed orders necessary to implement or otherwise give effect to the releases, in that action in a form acceptable to the Attorney General of the State.
      B. Federal Legislation. The Tribe and the State agree to support federal legislation ratifying this Compact that will accomplish the following:
      1. Bighorn Lake Water Supply. The State and the Tribe agree to support federal legislation that will provide an allocation of storage water in Bighorn Lake, as described in Section A.1.b., of Article III and which will reallocate the water in Bighorn Lake as set forth in Section A.1.b.(1).(b).(i)., of Article III. The priority date for the allocation shall be the date of the water right held by the Bureau of Reclamation as decreed or to be decreed by the Montana Water Court pursuant to 85-2-234, MCA. This allocation shall be held in trust for the Tribe by the United States and will be part of the Tribal Water Right.
      2. Right to Participate in Future Projects to Import Water. The Tribe shall have the right to initiate or participate in any project to augment the water supply in the Basins listed in Sections B., C., D. and E., of Article III, by transferring water from another drainage, and to have any such augmentation project deliver any entitlement of the Tribe to water to a point within the Reservation designated by the Tribe.
      3. Federal Court Jurisdiction. That the federal courts shall have jurisdiction to enforce the provisions of this Compact and to hear appeals from and enforce decisions of the Compact Board in accordance with Section F.7., of Article IV.
      C. Federal Contributions to Settlement. Federal contributions to settlement shall be as provided by Congress.

ARTICLE VII - FINALITY, SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS, EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPACT, AND WAIVER OF CLAIMS


      A. Ratification and Effectiveness of Compact.
      1. This Compact shall become Effective on the date it is ratified by the Tribe, by the State, and by the Congress of the United States, whichever date is latest. Upon ratification of this Compact by the Tribe and by the State, whichever is later, the terms of this Compact may not be altered, voided, or modified in any respect without the consent of both the Tribe and the State. Once ratified by Congress, the Tribe, and the State, the Compact may not be modified without the consent of the Tribe, the State, and the United States.
      2. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Compact, the Tribe reserves the right to withdraw as a Party to this Compact:
      a. If Congress has not ratified this Compact within four (4) years from the date the Compact is ratified by the State;
      b. If appropriations are not authorized by Congress within four (4) years of the date the Compact is ratified by the Tribe;
      c. If the Tribe and the United States do not reach agreement on the federal contribution to settlement;
      d. If appropriations are not made in the manner contemplated by the federal legislation ratifying the Compact; or
      e. If the Tribe and the United States do not reach agreement on settlement of issues regarding Section 2 of the Crow Allotment Act (41 Stat. 751).
      3. The Tribe may exercise its right to withdraw by sending to the Governor of the State of Montana and to the Secretary of the Interior by certified mail a resolution of the Crow Tribal Council stating the Tribe's intent to withdraw and specifying a withdrawal date not sooner than thirty (30) days from the date of the resolution. On the date designated in the resolution for Tribal withdrawal, this Compact shall become null and void without further action by any Party, and the Parties agree to resume negotiation in good faith for quantification of the water rights of the Crow Tribe and entry of a decree in a court of competent jurisdiction.
      4. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Compact, the State reserves the right to withdraw as a Party to this Compact:
      a. If the Tribe and Congress have not ratified this Compact within five (5) years from the date the Compact is ratified by the State;
      b. If Congress requires a state contribution to settlement that exceeds the contributions described in Section A., of Article VI;
      c. If Congress resolves issues under Section 2 of the Crow Allotment Act (41 Stat. 751) in a manner Adversely Affecting water rights Recognized Under State Law;
      d. If a streamflow and lake level management plan pursuant to Section A.7., of Article III is not agreed to within one (1) year after this Compact has been ratified by the Montana legislature or any extended deadline agreed to by the State, or if federal legislation is inconsistent with the streamflow and lake level management plan; or
      e. If the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation does not approve the list of current uses of the Tribal Water Right pursuant to Section E.2., of Article IV.
      5. The State may exercise its right to withdraw by sending to the Crow Tribal Chairman and to the Secretary of the Interior a letter delivered by certified mail from the Governor of the State of Montana stating the State's intent to withdraw and specifying a withdrawal date not sooner than thirty (30) days from the date of the letter. On the date designated in the letter for State withdrawal, this Compact shall become null and void without further action by any Party, and the Parties agree to resume negotiation in good faith for quantification of the water rights of the Crow Tribe and entry of a decree in a court of competent jurisdiction.
      6. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Compact, the Department of the Interior reserves the right to refuse to support federal legislation ratifying this Compact.
      7. The Parties understand and accept that federal financial contributions to the Compact may not be budgeted until October of the year following the year of enactment of the Compact.
      B. Incorporation Into Decrees and Disposition of Federal Suit.
      1. The Tribe, the State, and the United States agree to defend the provisions and purposes of this Compact including the quantification set forth in Article III, from all challenges and attacks in all proceedings pursuant to this Section B., of Article VII.
      2. Within one hundred eighty (180) days of the date this Compact is ratified by the Crow Tribal Council, the State of Montana, and Congress, whichever is latest, the Tribe, the State, or the United States shall file, in the general stream adjudication initiated by the State of Montana, pursuant to the provisions of 85-2-702(3), MCA, a motion for entry of the proposed decree set forth in Appendix 1 as the decree of the water rights held by the United States in trust for the Crow Tribe. If the Montana Water Court does not approve the proposed decree submitted with the motion within three years following the filing of the motion, the Compact shall be voidable by agreement of the State and the Tribe. If the Montana Water Court approves the proposed decree within three years, but the decree is subsequently set aside by the Montana Water Court or on appeal, the Compact shall be voidable by agreement of the State and the Tribe. Any effect of the failure of approval or setting aside of the decree on the approval, ratification, and confirmation by the United States shall be as provided by Congress. The Parties understand and agree that the submission of this Compact to a state court or courts, as provided for in this Compact, is solely to comply with the provisions of 85-2-702(3), MCA, and does not expand the jurisdiction of the state court or expand in any manner the waiver of sovereign immunity of the United States in the McCarran Amendment, 43 U.S.C. 666, or other provision of federal law.
      3. Consistent with 3-7-224, MCA, setting forth the jurisdiction of the chief water judge, for the purposes of 85-2-702(3), MCA, the review by the Montana Water Court shall be limited to Article III, and Appendix 1, and may extend to other sections of the Compact only to the extent that they relate to the determination of existing water rights. The final decree shall consist of Article III as displayed in Appendix 1, and such other information as may be required by 85-2-234, MCA. Nevertheless, pursuant to 85-2-702(3), MCA, the terms of the entire Compact must be included in the preliminary decree without alteration for the purpose of notice.
      4. Upon the issuance of a final decree by the Montana Water Court, or its successor, and the completion of any direct appeals therefrom, or upon the expiration of the time for filing any such appeal, the United States, the Tribe, and the State shall execute and file joint motions pursuant to Rule 41(a), Fed. R. Civ. P., to dismiss the Tribe's claims, and any claims made by the United States as trustee for the Tribe, in U.S. v. Big Horn Low Line Canal Company, et al., No. CIV-75-34-BLG (filed April 17, 1975) (hereinafter referred to as "Low Line Canal") and such claims may only be refiled if the Tribe exercises its option to withdraw as a Party to the Compact pursuant to Section A.3., of Article VII. This Compact shall be filed as a consent decree in Low Line Canal only if, prior to the dismissal of Low Line Canal as provided in Section B., of Article VII, it is finally determined in a judgment binding upon the State of Montana that the state courts lack jurisdiction over, or that the state court proceedings are inadequate to adjudicate, some or all of the water rights asserted in Low Line Canal.
      C. Settlement of Water Right Claims. The water rights and other rights confirmed to the Tribe in this Compact are in full and final satisfaction of the water right claims of the Tribe and the United States on behalf of the Tribe and its members, including federal reserved water rights claims based on Winters v. United States, 207 U.S. 564 (1908). In consideration of the rights confirmed to the Tribe in this Compact, and of performance by the State of Montana and the United States of all actions required by this Compact, including entry of a final order issuing the decree of the reserved water rights of the Tribe held in trust by the United States as quantified in the Compact and displayed in Appendix 1, the Tribe and the United States as trustee for the Tribe and Tribal members hereby waive, release, and relinquish any and all claims to water rights or to the use of water within the State of Montana existing on the date this Compact is ratified by the State, the Tribe, and Congress and conditional upon a final decree, whichever date is later.
      D. Binding Effect. After the Effective Date of this Compact, its terms shall be binding:
      1. Upon the State and any person or entity of any nature whatsoever using, claiming or in any manner asserting any right under the authority of the State to the use of water in the State of Montana; provided that, the validity of consent, ratification, or authorization by the State is to be determined by Montana law;
      2. Upon the Tribe, Tribal members, and any person or entity of any nature whatsoever using, claiming or in any manner asserting any right to the use of the Tribe's water right, or any right arising under any doctrine of reserved or aboriginal water rights for the Tribe or a Tribal member, or any right arising under tribal law; provided that, the validity of consent, ratification or authorization by the Tribe is to be determined by tribal law; and
      3. Upon the United States and any person or entity of any nature whatsoever using, claiming or in any manner asserting any right under the authority of the United States to the use of water in the State of Montana; provided that, the validity of consent, ratification or authorization by the United States is to be determined by federal law.
      E. Waiver of Claims or Objections.
      1. After the Effective Date of this Compact, the Tribe, any individual claiming a right to use water based on or derived from the Tribe, and the United States on behalf of the Tribe or a Tribal member, shall be prohibited from objecting to, or bringing a claim against, the claim or holder of a right to use water based on the laws of the State of Montana, and any carriage, storage, or delivery facilities and rights of way associated therewith, based on the assertion that such right is invalid because 85-2-301(4), MCA, is invalid as applied to such right, or that such right is inconsistent with or otherwise impairs any right reserved by the Tribe under Article 4 of the May 7, 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. If and to the extent necessary to effectuate the intent of this paragraph the Tribe, any individual claiming a right to use water based on or derived from the Tribe, and the United States on behalf of the Tribe shall be deemed to have waived and relinquished any claims or objections they may have against a holder of a right to use water based on the laws of the State of Montana, and any carriage, storage, or delivery facilities and rights of way associated therewith, based on the aforementioned law and Treaty.
      2. Waiver of claims by the Tribe against the United States shall be as provided by Congress.

ARTICLE VIII - LEGISLATION


      The State and Tribe agree to seek enactment of any legislation necessary to effectuate the provisions and purposes of this Compact, and to defend the provisions and purposes of this Compact from all challenges and attacks; provided that, no provision of the Compact shall be modified as to substance except as may be provided herein.
      IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives of the State of Montana, the Crow Tribe, and the United States have signed this Compact on the ____ day of____, 19____.

     History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 3, Sp. L. June 1999; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 44, L. 2009.

Previous Section MCA Contents Part Contents Search Help Next Section