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SENATE BILL NO. 326
INTRODUCED BY J. TESTER, K. GALVIN-HALCRO, D. WYATT, J. ELLINGSON
AN ACT PROVIDING THAT, WITH CERTAIN EXCEPTIONS, IT IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE TO INTERCEPT A COMMUNICATION OVER ANY TYPE OF TELEPHONE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO A CORDED, UNCORDED, CELLULAR, OR SATELLITE PHONE; DEFINING "TELEPHONE" FOR PURPOSES OF THE CRIMINAL CODE; PROVIDING THAT IT IS A CRIME TO PUBLISH CERTAIN INFORMATION BY COMPUTER TO AID IN THE AVOIDANCE OF PAYMENT OF A FEE FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES; AND AMENDING SECTIONS 45-2-101, 45-6-307, AND 45-8-213, MCA.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MONTANA:
Section 1. Section 45-2-101, MCA, is amended to read:
"45-2-101. General definitions. Unless otherwise specified in the statute, all words will be taken in the objective standard rather than in the subjective, and unless a different meaning plainly is required, the following definitions apply in this title:
(1) "Acts" has its usual and ordinary meaning and includes any bodily movement, any form of communication, and when relevant, a failure or omission to take action.
(2) "Administrative proceeding" means any proceeding the outcome of which is required to be based on a record or documentation prescribed by law or in which a law or a regulation is particularized in its application to an individual.
(3) "Another" means a person or persons, as defined in this code, other than the offender.
(4) "Benefit" means gain or advantage or anything regarded by the beneficiary as gain or advantage, including benefit to any other person or entity in whose welfare the beneficiary is interested. Benefit does not include an advantage promised generally to a group or class of voters as a consequence of public measures that a candidate engages to support or oppose.
(5) "Bodily injury" means physical pain, illness, or any impairment of physical condition and includes mental illness or impairment.
(6) "Cohabit" means to live together under the representation of being married.
(7) "Common scheme" means a series of acts or omissions motivated by a purpose to accomplish a single criminal objective or by a common purpose or plan that results in the repeated commission of the same offense or that affects the same person or the same persons or the property of the same person or persons.
(8) "Computer" means an electronic device that performs logical, arithmetic, and memory functions by the manipulation of electronic or magnetic impulses and includes all input, output, processing, storage, software, or communication facilities that are connected or related to that device in a system or network.
(9) "Computer network" means the interconnection of communication systems between computers or computers and remote terminals.
(10) "Computer program" means an instruction or statement or a series of instructions or statements, in a form acceptable to a computer, that in actual or modified form permits the functioning of a computer or computer system and causes it to perform specified functions.
(11) "Computer services" include but are not limited to computer time, data processing, and storage functions.
(12) "Computer software" means a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a computer system.
(13) "Computer system" means a set of related, connected, or unconnected devices, computer software, or other related computer equipment.
(14) "Conduct" means an act or series of acts and the accompanying mental state.
(15) "Conviction" means a judgment of conviction or sentence entered upon a plea of guilty or upon a verdict or finding of guilty of an offense rendered by a legally constituted jury or by a court of competent jurisdiction authorized to try the case without a jury.
(16) "Correctional institution" means the state prison, county or city jail, or other institution for the incarceration or custody of persons under sentence for offenses or awaiting trial or sentence for offenses.
(17) "Deception" means knowingly to:
(a) create or confirm in another an impression that is false and that the offender does not believe to be true;
(b) fail to correct a false impression that the offender previously has created or confirmed;
(c) prevent another from acquiring information pertinent to the disposition of the property involved;
(d) sell or otherwise transfer or encumber property without disclosing a lien, adverse claim, or other legal impediment to the enjoyment of the property, whether the impediment is or is not of value or is or is not a matter of official record; or
(e) promise performance that the offender does not intend to perform or knows will not be performed. Failure to perform, standing alone, is not evidence that the offender did not intend to perform.
(18) "Defamatory matter" means anything that exposes a person or a group, class, or association to hatred, contempt, ridicule, degradation, or disgrace in society or to injury to the person's or its business or occupation.
(19) "Deprive" means:
(a) to withhold property of another:
(ii) for such a period as to appropriate a portion of its value; or
(iii) with the purpose to restore it only upon payment of reward or other compensation; or
(b) to dispose of the property of another and use or deal with the property so as to make it unlikely that the owner will recover it.
(20) "Deviate sexual relations" means sexual contact or sexual intercourse between two persons of the same sex or any form of sexual intercourse with an animal.
(21) "Document" means, with respect to offenses involving the medicaid program, any application, claim, form, report, record, writing, or correspondence, whether in written, electronic, magnetic, microfilm, or other form.
(22) "Felony" means an offense in which the sentence imposed upon conviction is death or imprisonment in the state prison for any term exceeding 1 year.
(23) "Forcible felony" means any felony that involves the use or threat of physical force or violence against any individual.
(24) A "frisk" is a search by an external patting of a person's clothing.
(25) "Government" includes any branch, subdivision, or agency of the government of the state or any locality within it.
(26) "Harm" means loss, disadvantage, or injury or anything so regarded by the person affected, including loss, disadvantage, or injury to any person or entity in whose welfare the affected person is interested.
(27) A "house of prostitution" means any place where prostitution or promotion of prostitution is regularly carried on by one or more persons under the control, management, or supervision of another.
(28) "Human being" means a person who has been born and is alive.
(29) An "illegal article" is an article or thing that is prohibited by statute, rule, or order from being in the possession of a person subject to official detention.
(30) "Inmate" means a person who engages in prostitution in or through the agency of a house of prostitution.
(31) "Intoxicating substance" means any controlled substance, as defined in Title 50, chapter 32, and any alcoholic beverage, including but not limited to any beverage containing 1/2 of 1% or more of alcohol by volume. Intoxicating substance does not include dealcoholized wine or any beverage or liquid produced by the process by which beer, ale, port, or wine is produced if it contains less than 1/2 of 1% of alcohol by volume.
(32) An "involuntary act" means any act that is:
(a) a reflex or convulsion;
(b) a bodily movement during unconsciousness or sleep;
(c) conduct during hypnosis or resulting from hypnotic suggestion; or
(d) a bodily movement that otherwise is not a product of the effort or determination of the actor, either conscious or habitual.
(33) "Juror" means any person who is a member of any jury, including a grand jury, impaneled by any court in this state in any action or proceeding or by any officer authorized by law to impanel a jury in any action or proceeding. The term "juror" also includes a person who has been drawn or summoned to attend as a prospective juror.
(34) "Knowingly"--a person acts knowingly with respect to conduct or to a circumstance described by a statute defining an offense when the person is aware of the person's own conduct or that the circumstance exists. A person acts knowingly with respect to the result of conduct described by a statute defining an offense when the person is aware that it is highly probable that the result will be caused by the person's conduct. When knowledge of the existence of a particular fact is an element of an offense, knowledge is established if a person is aware of a high probability of its existence. Equivalent terms, such as "knowing" or "with knowledge", have the same meaning.
(35) "Medicaid" means the Montana medical assistance program provided for in Title 53, chapter 6.
(36) "Medicaid agency" has the meaning in 53-6-155.
(37) "Medicaid benefit" means the provision of anything of pecuniary value to or on behalf of a recipient under the medicaid program.
(38) (a) "Medicaid claim" means a communication, whether in oral, written, electronic, magnetic, or other form:
(i) that is used to claim specific services or items as payable or reimbursable under the medicaid program; or
(ii) that states income, expense, or other information that is or may be used to determine entitlement to or the rate of payment under the medicaid program.
(b) The term includes any related documents submitted as a part of or in support of the claim.
(39) "Mentally defective" means that a person suffers from a mental disease or defect that renders the person incapable of appreciating the nature of the person's own conduct.
(40) "Mentally incapacitated" means that a person is rendered temporarily incapable of appreciating or controlling the person's own conduct as a result of the influence of an intoxicating substance.
(41) "Misdemeanor" means an offense for which the sentence imposed upon conviction is imprisonment in the county jail for any term or a fine, or both, or for which the sentence imposed is imprisonment in the state prison for any term of 1 year or less.
(42) "Negligently"--a person acts negligently with respect to a result or to a circumstance described by a statute defining an offense when the person consciously disregards a risk that the result will occur or that the circumstance exists or when the person disregards a risk of which the person should be aware that the result will occur or that the circumstance exists. The risk must be of a nature and degree that to disregard it involves a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a reasonable person would observe in the actor's situation. "Gross deviation" means a deviation that is considerably greater than lack of ordinary care. Relevant terms, such as "negligent" and "with negligence", have the same meaning.
(43) "Obtain" means:
(a) in relation to property, to bring about a transfer of interest or possession, whether to the offender or to another; and
(b) in relation to labor or services, to secure the performance of the labor or service.
(44) "Obtains or exerts control" includes but is not limited to the taking, the carrying away, or the sale, conveyance, or transfer of title to, interest in, or possession of property.
(45) "Occupied structure" means any building, vehicle, or other place suitable for human occupancy or night lodging of persons or for carrying on business, whether or not a person is actually present. Each unit of a building consisting of two or more units separately secured or occupied is a separate occupied structure.
(46) "Offender" means a person who has been or is liable to be arrested, charged, convicted, or punished for a public offense.
(47) "Offense" means a crime for which a sentence of death or of imprisonment or a fine is authorized. Offenses are classified as felonies or misdemeanors.
(48) "Official detention" means imprisonment resulting from a conviction for an offense, confinement for an offense, confinement of a person charged with an offense, detention by a peace officer pursuant to arrest, detention for extradition or deportation, or any lawful detention for the purpose of the protection of the welfare of the person detained or for the protection of society. Official detention does not include supervision of probation or parole, constraint incidental to release on bail, or an unlawful arrest unless the person arrested employed physical force, a threat of physical force, or a weapon to escape.
(49) "Official proceeding" means a proceeding heard or that may be heard before any legislative, judicial, administrative, or other governmental agency or official authorized to take evidence under oath, including any referee, hearing examiner, commissioner, notary, or other person taking testimony or deposition in connection with the proceeding.
(50) "Other state" means any state or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
(51) "Owner" means a person other than the offender who has possession of or any other interest in the property involved, even though the interest or possession is unlawful, and without whose consent the offender has no authority to exert control over the property.
(52) "Party official" means a person who holds an elective or appointive post in a political party in the United States by virtue of which the person directs or conducts or participates in directing or conducting party affairs at any level of responsibility.
(53) "Peace officer" means any person who by virtue of the person's office or public employment is vested by law with a duty to maintain public order or to make arrests for offenses while acting within the scope of the person's authority.
(54) "Pecuniary benefit" is benefit in the form of money, property, commercial interests, or anything else the primary significance of which is economic gain.
(55) "Person" includes an individual, business association, partnership, corporation, government, or other legal entity and an individual acting or purporting to act for or on behalf of any government or subdivision of government.
(56) "Physically helpless" means that a person is unconscious or is otherwise physically unable to communicate unwillingness to act.
(57) "Possession" is the knowing control of anything for a sufficient time to be able to terminate control.
(58) "Premises" includes any type of structure or building and any real property.
(59) "Property" means any tangible or intangible thing of value. Property includes but is not limited to:
(a) real estate;
(c) commercial instruments;
(d) admission or transportation tickets;
(e) written instruments that represent or embody rights concerning anything of value, including labor or services, or that are otherwise of value to the owner;
(f) things growing on, affixed to, or found on land and things that are part of or affixed to any building;
(g) electricity, gas, and water;
(h) birds, animals, and fish that ordinarily are kept in a state of confinement;
(i) food and drink, samples, cultures, microorganisms, specimens, records, recordings, documents, blueprints, drawings, maps, and whole or partial copies, descriptions, photographs, prototypes, or models thereof;
(j) any other articles, materials, devices, substances, and any whole or partial copies, descriptions, photographs, prototypes, or models thereof that constitute, represent, evidence, reflect, or record secret scientific, technical, merchandising, production, or management information or a secret designed process, procedure, formula, invention, or improvement; and
(k) electronic impulses, electronically processed or produced data or information, commercial instruments, computer software or computer programs, in either machine- or human-readable form, computer services, any other tangible or intangible item of value relating to a computer, computer system, or computer network, and any copies thereof.
(60) "Property of another" means real or personal property in which a person other than the offender has an interest that the offender has no authority to defeat or impair, even though the offender may have an interest in the property.
(61) "Public place" means any place to which the public or any substantial group has access.
(62) "Public servant" means any officer or employee of government, including but not limited to legislators, judges, and firefighters, and any person participating as a juror, advisor, consultant, administrator, executor, guardian, or court-appointed fiduciary. The term does not include witnesses. The term "public servant" includes one who has been elected or designated to become a public servant.
(63) "Purposely"--a person acts purposely with respect to a result or to conduct described by a statute defining an offense if it is the person's conscious object to engage in that conduct or to cause that result. When a particular purpose is an element of an offense, the element is established although the purpose is conditional, unless the condition negatives the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense. Equivalent terms, such as "purpose" and "with the purpose", have the same meaning.
(64) (a) "Serious bodily injury" means bodily injury that:
(i) creates a substantial risk of death;
(ii) causes serious permanent disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function or process of any bodily member or organ; or
(iii) at the time of injury, can reasonably be expected to result in serious permanent disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function or process of any bodily member or organ.
(b) The term includes serious mental illness or impairment.
(65) "Sexual contact" means any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person of another for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of either party.
(66) "Sexual intercourse" means penetration of the vulva, anus, or mouth of one person by the penis of another person, penetration of the vulva or anus of one person by any body member of another person, or penetration of the vulva or anus of one person by any foreign instrument or object manipulated by another person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of either party. Any penetration, however slight, is sufficient.
(67) "Solicit" or "solicitation" means to command, authorize, urge, incite, request, or advise another to commit an offense.
(68) "State" or "this state" means the state of Montana, all the land and water in respect to which the state of Montana has either exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction, and the air space above the land and water.
(69) "Statute" means any act of the legislature of this state.
(70) "Stolen property" means property over which control has been obtained by theft.
(71) A "stop" is the temporary detention of a person that results when a peace officer orders the person to remain in the peace officer's presence.
(72) "Tamper" means to interfere with something improperly, meddle with it, make unwarranted alterations in its existing condition, or deposit refuse upon it.
(73) "Telephone" means any type of telephone, including but not limited to a corded, uncorded, cellular, or satellite telephone.
(73)(74) "Threat" means a menace, however communicated, to:
(a) inflict physical harm on the person threatened or any other person or on property;
(b) subject any person to physical confinement or restraint;
(c) commit any criminal offense;
(d) accuse any person of a criminal offense;
(e) expose any person to hatred, contempt, or ridicule;
(f) harm the credit or business repute of any person;
(g) reveal any information sought to be concealed by the person threatened;
(h) take action as an official against anyone or anything, withhold official action, or cause the action or withholding;
(i) bring about or continue a strike, boycott, or other similar collective action if the person making the threat demands or receives property that is not for the benefit of groups that the person purports to represent; or
(j) testify or provide information or withhold testimony or information with respect to another's legal claim or defense.
(74)(75) (a) "Value" means the market value of the property at the time and place of the crime or, if the market value
cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, the cost of the replacement of the property within a reasonable time after the crime. If
the offender appropriates a portion of the value of the property, the value must be determined as follows:
(i) The value of an instrument constituting an evidence of debt, such as a check, draft, or promissory note, is considered the amount due or collectible. The figure is ordinarily the face amount of the indebtedness less any portion of the indebtedness that has been satisfied.
(ii) The value of any other instrument that creates, releases, discharges, or otherwise affects any valuable legal right, privilege, or obligation is considered the amount of economic loss that the owner of the instrument might reasonably suffer by virtue of the loss of the instrument.
(iii) The value of electronic impulses, electronically produced data or information, computer software or programs, or any other tangible or intangible item relating to a computer, computer system, or computer network is considered to be the amount of economic loss that the owner of the item might reasonably suffer by virtue of the loss of the item. The determination of the amount of economic loss includes but is not limited to consideration of the value of the owner's right to exclusive use or disposition of the item.
(b) When it cannot be determined if the value of the property is more or less than $500 by the standards set forth in
(74)(a) (75)(a), its value is considered to be an amount less than $500.
(c) Amounts involved in thefts committed pursuant to a common scheme or the same transaction, whether from the same person or several persons, may be aggregated in determining the value of the property.
(75)(76) "Vehicle" means any device for transportation by land, water, or air or by mobile equipment, with provision for
transport of an operator. (76)(77) "Weapon" means any instrument, article, or substance that, regardless of its primary function, is readily capable
of being used to produce death or serious bodily injury. (77)(78) "Witness" means a person whose testimony is desired in any official proceeding, in any investigation by a grand
jury, or in a criminal action, prosecution, or proceeding."
Section 2. Section 45-6-307, MCA, is amended to read:
"45-6-307. Aiding the avoidance of telecommunications charges. (1) A person commits the offense of aiding the
avoidance of telecommunications charges when
he the person:
(a) publishes the number or code of an existing, canceled, revoked, expired, or nonexistent telephone credit card or the
numbering or coding
which that is employed in the issuance of credit cards with the purpose that it will be used to avoid the
payment of lawful telecommunications charges;
(b) publishes, advertises, sells, gives, or otherwise transfers to another plans or instructions for the making or
assembling of any apparatus, instrument, equipment, or device described in 45-6-306(4) with the purpose that
such it will
be used or with the knowledge or reason to believe that such it will be used to avoid the payment of lawful
telecommunications charges; or
(c) manufactures, assembles, possesses, sells, gives, or otherwise transfers any apparatus, instrument, equipment, or device described in 45-6-306(4) with the purpose that it will be used to avoid the payment of lawful telecommunications charges.
(2) A person convicted of the offense of aiding the avoidance of telecommunications charges shall be fined not to exceed $500 or be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not to exceed 6 months, or both.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the term "publish" means to communicate information to any one or more persons, either orally; in person; by computer, telephone, radio, or television; or in a writing of any kind, including but not limited to a letter, memorandum, circular, handbill, newspaper or magazine article, or book."
Section 3. Section 45-8-213, MCA, is amended to read:
"45-8-213. Privacy in communications. (1) Except as provided in 69-6-104, a person commits the offense of violating
privacy in communications if
he the person knowingly or purposely:
(a) with the purpose to terrify, intimidate, threaten, harass, annoy, or offend, communicates with
any a person by
telephone and uses any obscene, lewd, or profane language, suggests any a lewd or lascivious act, or threatens to inflict
injury or physical harm to the person or property of any the person. (the The use of obscene, lewd, or profane language or
the making of a threat or lewd or lascivious suggestions is prima facie evidence of an intent to terrify, intimidate, threaten,
harass, annoy, or offend );.
(b) uses a telephone to attempt to extort money or any other thing of value from
any a person or to disturb by repeated
telephone calls the peace, quiet, or right of privacy of any a person at the place where the telephone call or calls are
(c) records or causes to be recorded
any a conversation by use of a hidden electronic or mechanical device which that
reproduces a human conversation without the knowledge of all parties to the conversation. Subsection (c) This subsection
(1)(c) does not apply to duly elected or appointed public officials or employees when the transcription or recording is done
in the performance of official duty, to persons speaking at public meetings, or to persons given warning of the transcription
(d) by means of any machine, instrument, or contrivance or in any other manner:
(i) reads or attempts to read
any a message or learn the contents thereof of a message while it is being sent over a
(ii) learns or attempts to learn the contents of
any a message while it is in a telegraph office or is being received thereat
at or sent therefrom from a telegraph office; or
(iii) uses, attempts to use, or communicates to others any information
so obtained as provided in this subsection (1)(d);
(e) discloses the contents of a telegraphic message or any part
thereof of a telegraphic message addressed to another
person without the permission of such the person, unless directed to do so by the lawful order of a court; or
(f) opens or reads or causes to be read any sealed letter not addressed to
himself the person opening the letter without
being authorized to do so by either the writer of the letter or the person to whom it is addressed or, without the like
authority, publishes any of the contents of the letter knowing the same letter to have been unlawfully opened.
(2) Except as provided in 69-6-104, a person commits the offense of violating privacy in communications if the person purposely intercepts a telephonic voice or data communication. This subsection (2) does not apply to elected or appointed public officials or employees when the interception is done in the performance of official duty or to persons given warning of the interception.
(2)(3) (a) A person convicted of the offense of violating privacy in communications shall be fined not to exceed $500 or
imprisoned in the county jail for a term not to exceed 6 months, or both.
(b) On a second conviction of subsection (1)(a) or (1)(b), a person shall be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not to exceed 1 year or be fined an amount not to exceed $1,000, or both.
(c) On a third or subsequent conviction of subsection (1)(a) or (1)(b), a person shall be imprisoned in the state prison for a term not to exceed 5 years or be fined an amount not to exceed $10,000, or both."
- END -
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