33-2-402. Definitions. As used in this part, the following definitions apply unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
(1) "Accident and health insurance" means contracts that incorporate morbidity risk and provide protection against economic loss resulting from accident, sickness, or medical conditions.
(2) "Appointed actuary" means a qualified actuary who is appointed in accordance with the valuation manual to prepare an actuarial opinion required by this part.
(3) "Deposit-type contract" means a contract that does not incorporate mortality or morbidity risks.
(4) "Insurer" means an entity that:
(a) has written, issued, or reinsured life insurance contracts, accident and health insurance contracts, or deposit-type contracts in Montana and has at least one of the named contracts in force or on claim; or
(b) has written, issued, or reinsured life insurance contracts, accident and health insurance contracts, or deposit-type contracts in any state and is required to hold a certificate of authority to write life insurance, accident and health insurance, or deposit-type contracts in Montana.
(5) "Life insurance" means contracts that incorporate mortality risk, including annuity and pure endowment contracts.
(6) "NAIC" means the national association of insurance commissioners.
(7) (a) "Policyholder behavior" means any action taken by a policyholder, a contract holder, or any other person with the right to elect options, such as the action that a certificate holder may take under a policy or a contract subject to this part. The actions include but are not limited to allowing a policy or contract to lapse, making a premium payment or loan, or making benefit elections prescribed by the policy or contract. Other actions may be identified by rule.
(b) The term does not include events of mortality or morbidity that result in benefits prescribed in their essential aspects by the terms of the policy or contract.
(8) "Principle-based valuation" means a reserve valuation that uses one or more methods or one or more assumptions determined by the insurer. A principle-based valuation must comply with the provisions of 33-2-404.
(9) "Qualified actuary" means an individual who is qualified to sign the applicable statement of actuarial opinion in accordance with the American academy of actuaries qualification standards and meets the requirements specified in the valuation manual.
(10) "Tail risk" means a risk that occurs either when the frequency of low-probability events is higher than expected under a normal probability distribution or when there are observed events of very significant size or magnitude.
(11) "Valuation manual" means the valuation manual adopted by the NAIC in accordance with its model law regarding standard valuation and adopted by the commissioner by rule.