75-2-421. Persons subject to noncompliance penalties -- exemptions. (1) Except as provided in subsection (2), the department may assess and collect a noncompliance penalty from any person who owns or operates:
(a) a stationary source (other than a primary nonferrous smelter that has received a nonferrous smelter order under 42 U.S.C. 7419) that is not in compliance with any emission limitation specified in an order of the board, emission standard, or compliance schedule under the state implementation plan approved by the federal environmental protection agency;
(b) a stationary source that is not in compliance with an emission limitation, emission standard, standard of performance, or other requirement under this chapter or 42 U.S.C. 7411, 7412, 7477, or 7603;
(c) a stationary source that is not in compliance with any other requirement under this chapter or any requirement of Subchapter V of the federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661, et seq.; or
(d) any source referred to in subsections (1)(a), (1)(b), or (1)(c) that has been granted an exemption, extension, or suspension under subsection (2) or that is covered by a compliance order, or a primary nonferrous smelter that has received a primary nonferrous smelter order under 42 U.S.C. 7419, if that source is not in compliance with any interim emission control requirement or schedule of compliance under the extension, order, or suspension.
(2) Notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (1), the department may, after notice and opportunity for a public hearing, exempt any source from the requirements of 75-2-421 through 75-2-429 with respect to a particular instance of noncompliance that:
(a) the department finds is de minimis in nature and in duration;
(b) is caused by conditions beyond the reasonable control of the source and is of no demonstrable advantage to the source; or
(c) is exempt under 42 U.S.C. 7420(a)(2)(B) of the federal Clean Air Act.
(3) Any person who is jointly or severally adversely affected by the department's decision may request, within 15 days after the department renders its decision, upon affidavit setting forth the grounds for it, a hearing before the board. A hearing must be held under the provisions of the Montana Administrative Procedure Act, Title 2, chapter 4, part 6.