Montana Code Annotated 2023



Part 4. Agricultural Commodities Generally


80-4-402. Definitions. As used in parts 4 through 7 of this chapter, the following definitions apply:

(1) "Agent" means a person who contracts for or solicits any agricultural commodities from a producer or warehouse operator or negotiates the consignment or purchase of any agricultural commodity on behalf of a commodity dealer.

(2) "Agricultural commodity" means any grain, oil seed crops, seed, or other crops designated by rule of the department.

(3) "Bailment" means the transfer, by written or verbal contract, of an agricultural commodity by an owner of a commodity to a producer for the purpose of obtaining the producer's services in planting, growing, harvesting, or delivering back to the owner the agricultural commodity. The term includes any one or all of the enumerated transactions, whether title passes or not.

(4) "Bond" means the bond required to be filed by part 5 or 6 of this chapter and includes any equivalent established by department rule, as provided in 80-4-504 and 80-4-604.

(5) (a) "Commodity dealer" means a person who engages in a business involving or, as part of the business, participates in buying, brokering, exchanging, negotiating, or soliciting the sale, resale, exchange, bailment, or transfer of any agricultural commodity in the state of Montana, including online transactions of agricultural commodities grown in Montana.

(b) The term does not include:

(i) a person engaged solely in storing, shipping, or handling agricultural commodities for hire;

(ii) a person who buys agricultural commodities from a licensed commodity dealer;

(iii) a person who does not purchase more than $30,000 worth of agricultural commodities from producers during a licensing year; however, once a person exceeds the $30,000 exemption, the person shall obtain a license and is not eligible for the exemption for the succeeding year;

(iv) a person who is the producer of agricultural commodities that the person actually plants, nurtures, and harvests;

(v) a person whose trading in agricultural commodities is limited to trading in commodity futures on a recognized futures exchange; or

(vi) a person who buys agricultural commodities used exclusively for the feeding of livestock.

(6) "Delayed payment contract" means a written contract for the sale of an agricultural commodity when the purchase price is to be paid at a date after delivery of the agricultural commodity to the buyer and includes but is not limited to those contracts commonly referred to as deferred payment contracts, deferred pricing contracts, no-price-established contracts, or price-later contracts. A delayed payment contract does not include those contracts in which the parties intend payment to be made immediately upon determination of weights and grades.

(7) "Department" means the department of agriculture provided for in 2-15-3001.

(8) "Depositor" means a person who delivers an agricultural commodity to a commodity dealer for sale, who deposits an agricultural commodity in a warehouse for storage, processing, handling, or shipment, who is the owner or legal holder of an outstanding warehouse receipt, or who is lawfully entitled to possession of the agricultural commodity.

(9) "Director" means the director of the department of agriculture.

(10) "Equity" means the residual interest in the assets of a person that remains after deducting the liabilities of the person under generally accepted accounting principles.

(11) "FGIS" means the federal grain inspection service, a program administered by the federal grain inspection, packers, and stockyards administration (GIPSA).

(12) "Grain" means all grains for which standards have been established under the Grain Standards Act and all other agricultural commodities, such as mustard, oil seed crops, or other crops, that may be designated by rule of the department.

(13) "Grain standards" means the official standards of quality and condition of grain that establish the grades defined by the Grain Standards Act or those standards adopted by department rule.

(14) "Grain Standards Act" means the United States Grain Standards Act, 7 U.S.C. 71 through 87.

(15) "Inspector" means a person designated by the director to assist in the administration of parts 4 through 7 of this chapter. The term includes warehouse auditors or examiners.

(16) "Official agricultural commodity inspectors" means official personnel who perform or supervise the performance of official inspection services and certify the results of inspections, including the grade of agricultural commodities.

(17) "Official agricultural commodity samplers" or "samplers" means official personnel who perform or supervise the performance of official sampling services and certify the results of the sampling.

(18) "Official agricultural commodity weighers" means official personnel who perform or supervise the performance of class X or class Y weighing services and certify the results of the services, including the weight of the agricultural commodity.

(19) "Person" means an individual, firm, association, corporation, partnership, or any other form of business enterprise.

(20) "Producer" means the owner, tenant, or operator of land in this state who has an interest in and receives all or part of the proceeds from the sale of agricultural commodities produced on that land.

(21) "Public warehouse" or "warehouse" means an elevator, mill, warehouse, subterminal grain warehouse, public warehouse, or other structure or facility in which, for compensation, agricultural commodities are received for storage, handling, processing, or shipment. The term includes facilities that commingle commodities belonging to different lots of agricultural commodities.

(22) "Purchase contract" means a delayed payment contract or other written contract for the purchase of agricultural commodities by a commodity dealer.

(23) "Purchase price" means the final price after premiums and discounts are assessed.

(24) "Receipt" means a warehouse receipt.

(25) "Scale weight ticket" means a load slip or other evidence of delivery, other than a receipt, given to a depositor by a warehouse operator licensed under the provisions of part 5 of this chapter upon initial delivery of the agricultural commodity to the warehouse.

(26) "Station" means a warehouse located more than 3 miles from the central office of the warehouse.

(27) "Subterminal warehouse" means a warehouse where an intermediate function is performed in which agricultural commodities are customarily received from dealers or producers and where the commodities are accumulated prior to shipment.

(28) "Terminal grain warehouse" means a warehouse authorized by a grain exchange to receive or disburse grain on consignment as presented by the rules and regulations of a grain exchange.

(29) "Warehouse operator" means a person operating or controlling a public warehouse.

(30) "Warehouse receipt" means every receipt, whether negotiable or nonnegotiable, issued under part 5 of this chapter by a warehouse operator, except scale weight tickets.

(31) "Working capital" means the excess of current assets over current liabilities under generally accepted accounting principles.

History: En. Sec. 2, Ch. 539, L. 1983; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 55, L. 1985; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 578, L. 1985; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 299, L. 1991; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 452, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 337, L. 1995; amd. Sec. 2, Ch. 76, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 168, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 175, L. 2011; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 302, L. 2019.