Montana Code Annotated 2023



Part 1. Seed Labeling -- Licensing -- Certification


80-5-120. Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise, the following definitions apply:

(1) "Advertisement" means a representation, other than a representation on the label, that is disseminated by any means and that relates to seed governed by the provisions of this chapter.

(2) (a) "Agricultural seeds" means the seeds of grass, forage, cereal, fiber crops, and any other kinds of seeds commonly recognized within this state as agricultural seeds. The term includes lawn seeds and mixtures of seeds.

(b) The term does not include seeds from plants of the genus Cannabis that contain more than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol.

(3) "Approximate percentage" and "approximate number" mean the percentage or number with the variations above and below that value as allowed according to the tolerance limits defined in the rules for seed testing adopted by the association of official seed analysts.

(4) "Bulk" means not packaged in separate units.

(5) "Certifying agency" means:

(a) an agency authorized under the laws of a state, territory, or possession of the United States to officially certify seed and that has standards and procedures to ensure the genetic purity and identity of the seed certified; or

(b) an agency of a foreign country determined by the department to adhere to procedures and standards for seed certification that are comparable to those adhered to generally by the seed certifying agencies described in subsection (5)(a).

(6) "Conditioning" means drying, cleaning, scarifying, and other operations that could change the purity or germination of a seed and require the seed lot to be retested to determine labeling.

(7) "Controlling the pollination" means to use a method of hybridization that will produce pure seed that is at least 75% hybrid seed.

(8) "Dormant" means viable seeds, excluding hard seeds, that fail to germinate when provided the specified germination conditions for the seed in question.

(9) "Flower seeds" means seeds of herbaceous plants grown for their blooms, ornamental foliage, or other ornamental parts and that are commonly known and sold under the name of flower seeds in this state.

(10) "Genuine grower declaration" means a statement signed by the grower that indicates, for each lot of seed, the lot number, kind, variety, origin, weight, year of production, date, and destination of shipment.

(11) "Germination" means the emergence and development from the seed embryo as evidence of vitality when the seeds are subjected to the proper moisture and temperature conditions with proper aeration for the customary length of time for each specific kind of seed, as specified in the rules for seed testing adopted by the association of official seed analysts.

(12) "Hard seeds" means seeds that remain hard at the end of the prescribed test period because they have not absorbed water because of an impermeable seed coat.

(13) "Hybrid", as the term applies to varieties of seed, means the first generation seed of a cross produced by controlling the pollination and by combining:

(a) two or more inbred lines;

(b) one inbred or a single cross with an open pollinated variety; or

(c) two or more selected clones, seed lines, varieties, or species except open-pollinated varieties of corn (Zea mays). The second generation of subsequent generations from those crosses may not be regarded as hybrids. Hybrid designations must be treated as variety names.

(14) "Indigenous seeds" means the seeds of those plants that are naturally adapted to an area where the intended use is for revegetation of disturbed sites. These plants include grasses, forbs, shrubs, and legumes.

(15) "Inert matter" means all matter that is not seed, including broken seeds, sterile florets, chaff, fungus bodies, and stones as determined by methods defined by the association of official seed analysts.

(16) "Kind" means one or more related species or subspecies that are known singly or collectively by one common name, such as corn, oats, alfalfa, and timothy.

(17) "Labeling" means a tag or other device, attached to or written, stamped, or printed on a container or accompanying a lot of bulk seeds, that purports to set forth the information required on the seed label under 80-5-123 and that may include any other information relating to the labeled seed.

(18) "Lot" means a definite quantity of seed identified by a lot number or other mark, every portion of which is uniform within recognized tolerances for the factors that appear in the labeling.

(19) "Mixture" means seed consisting of more than one kind, each in excess of 5% by weight of the whole.

(20) "Montana certified seed grower" means a member of an authorized Montana seed certifying agency who has consented to produce seed under the rules for certified classes of seed, with respect to the maintenance of genetic purity and variety identity, set forth by the establishing agency.

(21) "Other crop seeds" means any agricultural, vegetable, or flower seeds other than the kind or variety of seed or the mixture of seeds included as pure seed.

(22) "Person" means an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, or association.

(23) "Prohibited noxious weed seeds" means the seeds of plant species that are designated as noxious weeds as defined in 7-22-2101.

(24) "Protected variety" means a variety for which a certificate has been issued by the United States plant variety protection office or for which an application for protection has been filed granting the owner or the owner's authorized agent exclusive rights in the sale and distribution of the variety.

(25) "Pure live seed" means the product of the percentage of germination plus hard seed or dormant seed multiplied by the percentage of pure seed, divided by 100, with the result expressed as a whole number.

(26) "Pure seed" means seed exclusive of inert matter and all other seeds not of the seed being considered, as determined by methods defined by the association of official seed analysts.

(27) "Restricted weed seeds" means the seeds of any plant that may adversely affect agriculture or the environment and that are designated as restricted weed seeds under rules adopted by the department.

(28) "Screening" means chaff, sterile florets, immature seed, weed seed, inert matter, and any other materials removed from seed by any kind of cleaning or conditioning.

(29) "Seed conditioning plant" means a place of business, whether a permanent or portable facility, that conditions seeds.

(30) "Seed dealer" means a person who sells seeds.

(31) "Seed labeler" means a person affixing labels to seeds, with that person's name, address, and other information as required in 80-5-123.

(32) "Sell" means to offer for sale, expose for sale, have in possession for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. The term includes furnishing agricultural seed to growers for the production of a crop on contract.

(33) "Stop sale" means an administrative order provided by law that restrains the sale, use, disposition, and movement of a definite amount of seed.

(34) "Treated" means that seed has received an application of a substance or has been subjected to a process for which a claim is made.

(35) "Type" means a group of varieties so nearly similar that the individual varieties cannot be clearly differentiated except under special conditions.

(36) "Variety" means a subdivision of a kind that is:

(a) distinct, in the sense that the variety can be differentiated by one or more identifiable morphological, physiological, or other characteristics from all other varieties known publicly;

(b) uniform, in the sense that the variations in essential and distinctive characteristics are describable; and

(c) stable, in the sense that the variety will remain unchanged in its essential and distinctive characteristics and its uniformity when reproduced or reconstituted as required by the different categories of varieties.

(37) "Vegetable seeds" means seeds of those crops that are or may be grown in gardens or on truck farms and are or may be sold generally under the name of vegetable seeds or herbs.

(38) "Viable" means that seeds are capable of producing a normal seedling under optimum growing conditions after all forms of dormancy have been overcome, if present.

(39) "Weed seeds" means the seeds of all plants generally recognized as weeds within this state and includes noxious weed seeds.

History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 373, L. 1987; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 345, L. 1999; amd. Sec. 19, Ch. 407, L. 2001; amd. Sec. 2, Ch. 420, L. 2017; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 92, L. 2019.